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Volume 9 Issue 2

S.No. Title & Authors Page No View

Title : Liraglutide Induced Acute Pancreatitis and Jaundice in an Elderly Female – Case Report

Authors : Dr. Khalid Farooqui, Dr. Hassan Abu Zaid, Dr. Mohammad Khalid Sharif, Dr. Ahmed M A Abdal Hadi, Dr. Farah Farooqui, Dr. Mohammad Riyadh Al Hammamy

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Abstract :

Acute pancreatitis is common clinical entity which we come across in our day to day clinical practice, it is defined as acute inflammation of pancreatic gland caused by various etiologies like CBD stone impaction, biliary strictures, systemic disease, alcoholism, major stress like surgeries, trauma including medications (1). It has been classified as mild, moderate and severe pancreatitis depending on the clinical , bio chemical and radiological appearance.(2)

We not so commonly encounter acute pancreatitis with few of common anti diabetic medications we prescribe in our clinics like sulphonylurease,DPP4 inhibitors (3,4,5,6). Liraglutide is one the most commonly prescribed medications in management of Type 2 diabetes during recent days. It is a derivative of a human incretin , glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and it used as a long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist.(7) Liraglutide binds to the same receptors as does the endogenousmetabolic hormone GLP-1 that stimulate insulin secretion. It acts with glucose dependent fashion specially post prandial high glucose levels it causes insulin secretion by incretin effect, delayed gastric emptying and decreases prandial glucagon secretion (8,9).

Liraglutide has also been used in the management of Obesity and also has shown beneficial cardio vascular effects during recent clinical trials.(10)

The most common reported adverse effects are nausea, vomiting, abdominal discomfort and there are also cases reported with medullary carcinoma of thyroid and few cases of acute pancreatitis.(11)

We Report a case of elderly lady DM2 with morbid obesity started on liraglutide developed Acute Pancreatitis and  Cholestatic Jaundice , with symptoms resolving clinically as well as biochemically after stopping liraglutide.


Title : Controversies and New Hypotheses on Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm in Hot and Humid Air

Authors : MESSAN Folly

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Bronchospasm is a chronic disease that affects the respiratory airways in both general and sporting populations. Bronchospasm has been mainly studied and documented extensively in athletes in continental climates of cold and dry air. The prevalence values ​​observed for this disease were increased in these athletes. On the other hand, the prevalence declined among athletes acclimated to the hot and humid air climate. As a result, the quality of inhaled ambient air appears to be a determining factor in the pathophysiology of bronchospasm. Thus, in recent years, there has been controversy concerning the role of warm moist air in exacerbating or alleviating bronchospasm. Previous studies have suggested that the high temperature of inhaled air during physical exertion is an explanation for the low prevalence values. However, studies performed in tropical areas highlight the high prevalence values ​​of bronchospasm. This review is based on explanatory hypotheses related to changes in airflow and the effects of heat exchange and freshness on the epithelium. Finally, the induced effects are addressed under conditions where the temperature of the inhaled ambient air is lower or higher than that of the body fixed at 37 °C. On the basis of the assumptions made in this review, we suggest that exercise-induced bronchospasm in athletes is just as important in hot and humid air conditions as it is in cold and dry air conditions. The variability in the prevalence values ​​of bronchospasm on which the controversies are based is mainly due to different states of training of the subjects, the nature and intensity of the effort, the various parameters and diagnostic criteria of the sportsmen, and assessments of bronchospasm and different modes of breathing. We hypothesized that in cold and dry air environments, the small lower airways of athletes are more vulnerable than those of their counterparts to pathophysiology in hot and humid climates. Professional sportsmen who specialize in long-distance endurance sports therefore truly expose their small airways to various pathologies.


Title : Cultural Awareness through Animal Proverbs in English and Myanmar

Authors : Thet Ni

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Abstract :

Every country has proverbs that are unique to it. Proverbs reflect the culture of people and its nation. Proverbs and sayings are effective devices of truth about culture, religion, tradition, custom and belief. The present study tries to find out the cultural differences in the concept of animals through English and Myanmar proverbs.Animals have been in harmony with human beings through centuries. People have used animal images in their daily livesto express their ideas and feelings explicitly. There are lots of animal proverbs in English and Myanmar but this study compares and analyzes some proverbs which are identical in meaning but are different in animal images and proverbs with identical in meaning and animal images.For this purpose 11 proverbs from English and Myanmar are collected and analyzed. It is identified that some proverbs share similar semantic function with different animal images. These proverbs reflect different cultural, social and cognitive values of two nations.