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Volume 8 Issue 6

S.No. Title & Authors Page No View
1

Title : Effectiveness of Silver Nitrate on the Removal of Bacteria in Ceramic Pot Filters

Authors : Muhammad Sani Shehu, Sani Inuwa Lamido, Kabir Lawal

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Abstract :

This research is aimed at comparing the effectiveness of silver nitrate application methods on ceramic filter pot for treating drinking water. Filter pots performance with and without colloidal silver nitrate application was determined based on total coliform removal efficiency. Significant impact of silver nitrate application in removing total coliforms were observed for all filter pots. All filters were produced using locally available materials –clay and sawdust. The application method of the silver nitrate was dipping method and surface coating with a removal efficiency of 100% and 99.8% of total coliform respectively. For the filter with the dipping method, the following properties for filtered water were recorded: BOD of 5.94 mg/l, COD of 2 mg/l, turbidity of 5.24 NTU and Nitrate of 5.7 mg/l. Whereas, the filtered waterfrom filter with surface coating have the following properties: BOD of 2.21 mg/l, COD of 2.13 mg/l, turbidity of 4.48 NTU and Nitrate of 5.2 mg/l. These values fall within the World Health Organization limits for water treatment. This study concludes that locally available raw materials can be utilized to produced ceramic filters.This surely will help especially the rural dwellers in accessing clean drinking water.

01-05
2

Title : Validity and Reliability Evidence of the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale (BPN-ES) in a European Sample of Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

Authors : Skordilis Emmanouil, Greenlees Iain, Chrysagis Nikolaos, Grammatopoulou Eirini, Papadopoulou Vasiliki, Pardo Gill Francisco Javier , Gaillard Joel, Skordilis Antonios, Dias Joao, Serras Dionysios

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Abstract :

The study was based on the Self-Determination Theory (SDT) and examined the validity and reliability of the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale (BPN-ES)[27] of individuals with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) from Greece, Cyprus and Portugal. The participants were 152 adolescents and adults with ID, 72 females and 80 males, with high (N = 92), moderate (N = 22) or low functionality (N = 38), aging 16 to 51 years old, attending daily centers in Greece (N = 100), Portugal (N = 20) and Cyprus (N = 32). Data was collected from a psychologist and a coach, both employed at the respective daily centers. The statistical analyses revealed sufficient predictive validity evidence through the intercorrelations of the BPN-ES (autonomy, competence and relatedness) with the Pictorial Motivation Scale (intrinsic motivation – IM, self-determined extrinsic motivation – SDEM, non-self-determined extrinsic motivation – NSDEM, and amotivation – AM). Further, significant differences were found among individuals who differed according to functionality with respect to autonomy and competence (construct validity evidence). The BPN-ES Cronbach alpha indexes (.703 to .709) and the Intraclass coefficients (.689 to .831) provided sufficient internal consistency and   test retest reliability evidence. The present findings supported the BPN-ES psychometrics for individuals with ID and are discussed accordingly. Certain limitations however, such as co morbidities, sampling methods, established golden standard, blind assessments and ethnic backgrounds do not allow generalization without caution. Future researchers may overcome these limitations and establish a solid motivation measure across Europe, based on the SDT, for individuals with ID.

06-15
3

Title : The Influence of Age on Body Structure and Body Compositionof Patients Undergoing Chronic Peritoneal Dialysis, And Its Relationship with The Treatment Schedules

Authors : Giancarlo Ruggieri

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Abstract :

This paper studied the possible influence of age on the physical conditions and, with a secondary interest, of the dialytic treatment, of a population of 17 males and 32 females undergoing peritoneal dialysis. The influence of age was studied comparing the conditions of the patients separated in groups of different age, the first group based for males and females on the average age, the second group on the age greater and lower 60 years and the third group on the age greater and lower 67 years, this to ascertain if the progressive aging could induce different effects. The result of this research, possibly limited by an insufficient numerousness of the studied populations, showed that very probably the results obtained separating the bodily structures according to the greater and lower average age were modified with the increasing of age to 60 years and 67 years, these last groups  significantly decreasing the differences between the bodily properties, when separating greater and lower age, respect to the similar separation operated in average age : that is to say that the aging beyond the basal age of the studied populations (males 58.8±16.38,females 55.1±10.52)  decreases the possible differences existing in bodily properties. For what concerning the dialytic treatment,a significant difference was pointed out for males and for females about the average age, but for what concerning the differences greater versus lower of 60 years and 67 years, not significant differences resulted for males, which differently resulted for females.

16-22
4

Title : Biology and Philosophy. VI. Plato’s Cave and Homo sapiens Inequality

Authors : Juan S. Gómez-Jeria

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Paper Plato’s Cave is presented and discussed considering it as a primary model to place man in the ladder of the degrees of apprehension of reality. A model constituted by a cylinder-ladder with steps is presented and discussed. The lowest level of this cylinder is filled with Homo sapiens having special characteristics. The people living inside Plato’s Cave fill the next segment of the cylinder. These people are well described in Charles de Bovelles’ Liber de Sapiente. An individual placed on a certain step of this ladder is able to perceive the individuals placed on lower steps and may find an appropriate way to communicate with them. But he is not able to recognize individuals placed on steps above him, perceiving them at most as his equals. Also, an individual can ascend this ladder if and only if he has the genetic inheritance that allows him to do so. Also, he must find the appropriate method adapted to his genetics allowing him to climb. The cylinder-ladder model provides an interesting explanation of the results of the activity of preachers. It is necessary that Humanity be free definitively of all the elements that exist within Plato's Cave. This could be done when we have the complete knowledge of how to manipulate our DNA and thus be able to get rid of the trunk of the Primates and create one or more completely new species and not an 'improved' Homo sapiens. The necessity of finding the personal ontological status in the ladder should be an imperative for all.

23-29
5

Title : An Experimental Study on Self-Compacting M-30 Grade Concrete Using PEG

Authors : Abhishek Sharma, Dr. Bharat Nagar

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 In general concrete is a man-made material, most widely used building material in the construction industry. It consists of a rationally chosen mixture of binding material such as cement, well-graded fine and coarse aggregate, water and additives (to make specimen with required characteristics). Self-curing is done in order to fulfill the water requirements of concrete whereas self-compacting concrete is prepared so that it can be placed in difficult positions and congested reinforcements. This investigation is aimed to utilize the benefits of both self-curing as well as self-compacting. The present investigation involves self-compacting self-curing concrete is achieved by using polyethylene glycol at a rate of 0%, 1%, and 2%. The various mechanical properties like compressive strength and tensile strength is considered. The test results were analyzed at different temperatures both inside and outside the laboratory for air curing. It is analyzed that the optimum dosage of 1% of PEG contributes higher strength. Workability tests i.e. slump flow, T50, V-funnel, , L-box were conducted on the fresh concrete whereas water retention and compressive strength were evaluated to determine the properties of hardened concrete. Comparative studies were carried out for water retention and compressive strength for conventional SCC and self-cured SCC. The compressive strength of self-cured SCC is comparable with old-fashioned cured specimens at lower w/c ratio whereas does not provide satisfactory results at higher w/c ratio.

30-33
6

Title : Perception of the Recipients on the 4Ps Poverty Alleviation Program in the Philippines

Authors : Alma Sonia Q. Sanchez-Danday, Lorena M. Ripalda Maria Teresa L. Delima, Romyr L. Gabon

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To alleviate poverty in the Philippines, the government implemented the PantawidPamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) which has been patterned from the Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) Programs from other countries. This study sought to determine the recipients’ profile and its relationship to their perceived program implementation in terms of its policy and objectives through a descriptive correlational study. Thirty-nine recipients from one public elementary school answered the questionnaire based on the PantawidPamilya Guide Booklet by the Department of Social Welfare and Development. Statistical tools such as eta correlation coefficient, Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficient, and Goodman and Kruskal’s gamma were used to establish the relationship between the recipients’ profile and perceived extent of implementation at 5% level of significance. The recipients’ profile was determined using mean, percentages, and frequency distribution. The results revealed that the program’s health and education policies and its social assistance and development objectiveswere perceived to be implemented, however, only a few profile factors were significant to the recipients’ perceived program implementation.

34-41
7

Title : Structural Design and Multi-objective Optimization of Planetary Frame for 6T40E Automatic Transmission

Authors : ZHAO Niu , HUANG Zhao-ming

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The 6T40E automatic transmission with three simple planetary rows and six shifting actuators can achieve six forward gears and one reverse gearing. Based on CATIA software and ANSYS software, this paper carries out three-dimensional modeling and finite element analysis of planetary frame, the key component of 6T40E. Taking the highest transfer efficiency and the smallest overall volume of planetary gear train as the ultimate optimization objective, a correct multi-objective optimization mathematical model of efficiency and volume is established. The multi-objective optimization of planetary gear train is carried out by using MATLAB software, which provides theoretical guidance for the optimal design of planetary gear transmission mechanism. It provides a theoretical basis for the researchers engaged in automotive and mechanical design to reasonably select transmission type, correctly design and apply, develop, test and develop new types.

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