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Volume 8 Issue 6

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Title : Effectiveness of Silver Nitrate on the Removal of Bacteria in Ceramic Pot Filters

Authors : Muhammad Sani Shehu, Sani Inuwa Lamido, Kabir Lawal

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Abstract :

This research is aimed at comparing the effectiveness of silver nitrate application methods on ceramic filter pot for treating drinking water. Filter pots performance with and without colloidal silver nitrate application was determined based on total coliform removal efficiency. Significant impact of silver nitrate application in removing total coliforms were observed for all filter pots. All filters were produced using locally available materials –clay and sawdust. The application method of the silver nitrate was dipping method and surface coating with a removal efficiency of 100% and 99.8% of total coliform respectively. For the filter with the dipping method, the following properties for filtered water were recorded: BOD of 5.94 mg/l, COD of 2 mg/l, turbidity of 5.24 NTU and Nitrate of 5.7 mg/l. Whereas, the filtered waterfrom filter with surface coating have the following properties: BOD of 2.21 mg/l, COD of 2.13 mg/l, turbidity of 4.48 NTU and Nitrate of 5.2 mg/l. These values fall within the World Health Organization limits for water treatment. This study concludes that locally available raw materials can be utilized to produced ceramic filters.This surely will help especially the rural dwellers in accessing clean drinking water.


Title : Validity and Reliability Evidence of the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale (BPN-ES) in a European Sample of Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

Authors : Skordilis Emmanouil, Greenlees Iain, Chrysagis Nikolaos, Grammatopoulou Eirini, Papadopoulou Vasiliki, Pardo Gill Francisco Javier , Gaillard Joel, Skordilis Antonios, Dias Joao, Serras Dionysios

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Abstract :

The study was based on the Self-Determination Theory (SDT) and examined the validity and reliability of the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale (BPN-ES)[27] of individuals with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) from Greece, Cyprus and Portugal. The participants were 152 adolescents and adults with ID, 72 females and 80 males, with high (N = 92), moderate (N = 22) or low functionality (N = 38), aging 16 to 51 years old, attending daily centers in Greece (N = 100), Portugal (N = 20) and Cyprus (N = 32). Data was collected from a psychologist and a coach, both employed at the respective daily centers. The statistical analyses revealed sufficient predictive validity evidence through the intercorrelations of the BPN-ES (autonomy, competence and relatedness) with the Pictorial Motivation Scale (intrinsic motivation – IM, self-determined extrinsic motivation – SDEM, non-self-determined extrinsic motivation – NSDEM, and amotivation – AM). Further, significant differences were found among individuals who differed according to functionality with respect to autonomy and competence (construct validity evidence). The BPN-ES Cronbach alpha indexes (.703 to .709) and the Intraclass coefficients (.689 to .831) provided sufficient internal consistency and   test retest reliability evidence. The present findings supported the BPN-ES psychometrics for individuals with ID and are discussed accordingly. Certain limitations however, such as co morbidities, sampling methods, established golden standard, blind assessments and ethnic backgrounds do not allow generalization without caution. Future researchers may overcome these limitations and establish a solid motivation measure across Europe, based on the SDT, for individuals with ID.


Title : The Influence of Age on Body Structure and Body Compositionof Patients Undergoing Chronic Peritoneal Dialysis, And Its Relationship with The Treatment Schedules

Authors : Giancarlo Ruggieri

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Abstract :

This paper studied the possible influence of age on the physical conditions and, with a secondary interest, of the dialytic treatment, of a population of 17 males and 32 females undergoing peritoneal dialysis. The influence of age was studied comparing the conditions of the patients separated in groups of different age, the first group based for males and females on the average age, the second group on the age greater and lower 60 years and the third group on the age greater and lower 67 years, this to ascertain if the progressive aging could induce different effects. The result of this research, possibly limited by an insufficient numerousness of the studied populations, showed that very probably the results obtained separating the bodily structures according to the greater and lower average age were modified with the increasing of age to 60 years and 67 years, these last groups  significantly decreasing the differences between the bodily properties, when separating greater and lower age, respect to the similar separation operated in average age : that is to say that the aging beyond the basal age of the studied populations (males 58.8±16.38,females 55.1±10.52)  decreases the possible differences existing in bodily properties. For what concerning the dialytic treatment,a significant difference was pointed out for males and for females about the average age, but for what concerning the differences greater versus lower of 60 years and 67 years, not significant differences resulted for males, which differently resulted for females.