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Volume 7 issue 4

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Title : Role and importance of Physiotherapy during Palliative Care in India: A Review

Authors : Dr. Tabassum Saher, Dr. Sheetal Kalra, Dr. Joginder Yadav, Shalu Thariwal, Khumanshi Yadav, Pinky Tanwar

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Background and purpose of the study

The importance of physiotherapy in life limiting diseases prevention and management has become generally well accepted. Palliative care is the multidisciplinary therapeutic approach for people with life limiting illness. It focuses on providing relief from symptoms such as pain, fatigue, physical stress and mental stress at any stage of illness. There has been limited research conducted to investigate the importance of role of physiotherapy in palliative care setting. So, the purpose of this study is to contribute a review to the current research involving the importance of physiotherapy during palliative care in patients who are suffering from life limiting illnesses

Methods: There are number of research interventions and publications examining the benefits of physical activity in life threatening illnesses.  This article reviewed included a variety of study designs like  randomized control trials (RCTs), retrospective studies, pilot study, case reports, observational studies, feasibility studies and prospective cohort studies evaluating programs. We have included 20 articles for this study. This study has been completed by independently screening and reviewing the eighteen year studies that were published between the years 2001 to 2018 related to the role of physiotherapy during palliative care. The databases and journals searched included Google Scholar, PUBMED, MEDLINE and PEDro. Outcomes measures of this study are physical function, fatigue, pain and QOL.

Results: Throughout all of the 20 reviewed articles, it was reported that physiotherapy results in improvements in a variety of aspects of patient’s functions and relief of symptoms. These benefits signify the valuable role that physiotherapy plays in caring for patients during palliative care and the impact it can have on patients’ functions and symptom management. This study strongly indicates the role of physiotherapy in improving independency of the patients and overall quality of life.


Title : The Relationship Vitamin C Level and MMP-2 Serum with Premature Rupture of Membranes and Normal Pregnancy

Authors : Ika Yulia Darma, Arni Amir, Vaulinne Basyir

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Background: One of the important problems in obstetrics is premature rupture of membranes. Incidence of premature rupture of membranes caused by multifactorial, including the factors of infection and nutrients of pregnant women that affect the elasticity of membranes. The aim of the study to investigate the relationship vitamin C level and MMP-2 serum with premature rupture of membranes and normal pregnancy. Methods: This research is cross sectional comparative study design. The research is in the Midwife Room of Bhayangkara Hospital, dr. Reksodiwiryo and dr. Rasidin Hospital Padang in September - October 2017. The population in this study were pregnant women with early rupture of membranes and all women with normal pregnancy (gestational age ≥ 37-42 weeks) and sample size 58 people in two groups. Sampling technique with consecutive sampling. The examination of vitamin C and MMP-2 levels was performed in Biomedical Laboratory of Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Andalas by ELISA method. Test of data normality with Shapiro-Wilk test and independent sample T test and Pearson correlation for hyphotesis. Results: The results showed that mean of vitamin C level in premature rupture of membranes was 0.53 ± 0.09 mg/dl, and 0.58 ± 0.08 mg/dl in normal pregnancy (p <0.05). The mean of MMP-2 level in premature rupture of membranes was 35.17 ± 2.23 ng/ml, and 33.27 ± 0.82 ng/ml in normal pregnancy (p <0.05). There was no relationship between vitamin C and MMP-2 levels with premature rupture of membranes and normal pregnancy (p> 0.05). Conclusion: The conclusion of this study there were mean difference of vitamin C and MMP-2 levels in premature rupture of membranes and normal pregnancy. However, there was no relationship between vitamin C and MMP-2 levels in premature rupture of membranes and normal pregnancy


Title : The Effect of Temperature on The Efficiency of The Reduction of Graphene Oxide

Authors : Kyeong-Won Park

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Comparative spectroscopic and microscopic analyses of the oxygen content in oxygen-containing functional groups for graphene oxide and its reduced form are reported. The graphene oxide prepared by Hummers method using graphite flakes was used as a starting material. Reduced graphene oxide was obtained through the reduction of the graphene oxide sheets with hydrazine hydrate at room temperature and 98 °C. The comparison of the oxygen content and functionality before and after the reduction of graphene oxides at different temperatures were investigated by XRD, AFM, SEM, TEM, FT-IR, XPS,  and Raman spectroscopy. The reduced graphene oxides showed much larger interlayer distances (1.36 nm at room temperature and 1.08 nm at 98 °C) than those of graphene oxide (0.87 nm) and graphite (0.34 nm). According to the overall oxygen analysis data, the reduction process at 98 °C was more efficient than that of room temperature: however the epoxy- and carboxylic groups were completely removed at both temperatures.


Title : Evaluation of Food Qualities of Pap (Akamu) Obtained From Diverse Maize Flour Processing Methods: Implication for Farmers Education

Authors : Isirima Chekwa Ben , Ukpong Godwin U.

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The study was to determine the effect of different processing methods on maize flour / pap quality and acceptability. In this study a laboratory analysis was conducted to determine food value of maize flour obtained with the use of various processing methods. The laboratory analysis was done according to America Official Analytic Chemists (AOAC). A second part of the work involved a consumer acceptability test using a seven point hedonic rating scale. A completely randomize design (CRD) with four (4) treatments, each replicated three (3) times was employed to level of consumer acceptability of flour and pap obtained. Treatment A involved Blanching of maize grains whereas treatment B, C, and D, fermentation of grain in potash solution, fermentation in daily use of fresh water and fermentation of grain in fresh water without daily changes. A well-structured questionnaire designed in a 7-point hedonic rating scale format was the administered to population sample of twenty (20) consumers panelist. Results obtained from the study shows that flour and pap obtained from maize grains treated with the varied fermentation processes had significant difference in moisture content, crude protein, crude fiber, ether extract, dry matter, ash, calcium and magnesium. The organoleptic study showed that consumers preferred flour and pap gotten from potash solution fermentation process for its color and taste, however the consumers also relished the taste of pap obtain from daily use of fresh–water maize grain fermentation technique. Fermentation of maize in daily use of fresh water and fermentation in potash solution is considered most appropriate maize flour processing, especially where the producers target is to increase protein value of the foodstuff but where color in addition to taste and relatively high protein level is needed then use of regulated quantity of potash should be considered.


Title : Comparative Evaluation of Filter and Wrapper Based Approach for Micro Array Cancer Classification

Authors : Akinrotimi Akinyemi Omololu, Mabayoje Modinat Abolore

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The microarray classification technique is capable of tracking the expression levels of thousands of genes simultaneously. The high dimensional feature vectors of microarray, impose a high dimensional cost, as well as the risk of over fitting during classification. Thus, it is necessary to reduce the dimension, through the use of an efficient method such as; feature selection. In this paper, a different technique, based on classification of micro array cancer dataset, including the two basic approaches of feature selection: the filter and wrapper techniques have been employed.


Title : How Media Manipulates Public Opinion in Case of Wars

Authors : Udhava Gupta

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This study aimed to explore the involvement of media in shaping the opinion of the public during various wars. The research analysed three wars namely the Iraq war of 1991, the Iraq war of 2003 and the Vietnam War using secondary data from various research articles, videos and history based blogs. It was found that media played a pertinent role in not only forming the public’s opinions but also in orchestrating the war itself with the help of several tactics such as either representing only half of the story based on unreliable sources or propagating “Breaking News” by using false claims and headlines. The current research also found that media indulged in selectivity of history where they chose to present only positive aspects of one side and negative things of the other whichfacilitatedthe achievement of their aim of framing the public opinion.


Title : Μusculoskeletal Disorders among Greek National Gymnastics team

Authors : Tsekoura M., Billis E. ,Tsiringaki A. , Dimopoulou T. , Fousekis K., Tsepis E.

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Background.   Gymnastics, being one of the oldest Olympic sports,is technically difficult and physically highly demanding,requiring long hours of practice in explosive and complex movements. Gymnastics injuries are frequent particularly among advanced level female gymnasts. Today's gymnastic stunts require a high degree of skill in acrobatics, whole body strength and static as well as dynamic balance. The best way to identify possible risk factors and to suggest injury preventive measures is to determine injury rates. Physicians who treat gymnasts must be aware of the most common problems. 

Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of injury rates among professional elite gymnastic athletes in the Greek National team.

Methods. A sample of 33 Greek elite competitive gymnasts were administered a questionnaire to collect personal and training data as well as information concerning the number, location, and type of musculoskeletal disorders sustained in the previous 12 months. All athletes were gymnastics in the Greek National team. Ethical approval was provided by the ethics committee of the School of Health and Welfare-Technological Educational Institute of Western Greece. 

Results. A total of 33 gymnasts (men: 16; women:17)  with a median age 20.45 (range 11-40 years) years participated in the present cross-sectional study. 62% of elite reported at least one musculoskeletal injury during the last year. In total, 108 injuries were registered. The most common anatomic areas involved, were the ankles (60.2 %) followed by the shoulders (54.5%) and the wrists (54.5%). There were differences between genders regarding the main areas of pain and discomfort, with the ankles being more prevalent in women compared with men (11 cases vs 9 cases; p = 0.97), while men tended to complain mostly about pain in shoulders  (15  vs 3 cases; p=0.8) and wrists (12 vs 6 cases; p=0.17).

 Conclusions. Gymnasts are high-performance athletes with high prevalence of injuries and disorders. Further research should investigate in depth the profile of musculoskeletal disorders in Greek elite gymnastics athletes and the effectiveness of focused prevention programmes.


Title : A Comparative Study of Effectiveness between Diaphragmatic Breathing and Resistive Inspiratory Muscle Training on Fatigue during Pregnancy

Authors : Wafa Theyab A Alokayli, Sara Marzouk Alkhaldi, Sara Fahad Bin Shehan

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Background: Physical inactivity, increased weight and alterations in the pulmonary functions cause feeling of low energy and fatigue amongst pregnant women, which hampers their quality of life.

Objective: This study was done to compare the effect of Inspiratory Muscle Training and Diaphragmatic Breathing Exercises on fatigue during pregnancy.

Design: Experimental Study Design

Method: This was a pre post parallel study group design done on a sample size of 32 pregnant women, who were randomly divided between two groups. One group received Inspiratory Muscle Training (IMT) and another received Diaphragmatic Breathing Exercise (DBE). The outcome measure was fatigue, which was analysed at baseline and after the intervention of 4 weeks.

Result: Inspiratory muscle training was found to be beneficial to reduce fatigue during pregnancy.

Conclusion: The present study suggested that the performance of IMT in pregnancy during third trimester helps to reduce fatigue.


Title : Correlation of Global Body Examination (GBE) and St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (COPD)

Authors : Dr. Nazia Kulsum, Dr. Mohammad Anamul Haque, Dr. Tajwar Yasmeen, Dr. Prabhpreet Bachittar Singh

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Background and purpose: Chronic Obstructive pulmonary Disease (COPD), a common preventable and treatable disease, is characterized by persistent airflow limitation that is usually progressive and associated with an enhanced chronic inflammatory response in the airways and the lung to noxious particles or gases. A new comprehensive instrument the Global Body Examination (GBE) is developed. It is an improved evaluation tool for respiration extracting from CBE and GPE-52 the respiration items with best ability to assess a patient with respiratory disorders. It has been earlier documented that GBE have good internal consistency and is excellent in discriminating healthy individual and patient with respiratory disorder. The new scales provide a sound basis for physiotherapeutic examination of patients with long-lasting Respiratory problems. Finding relationship of GBE with other measures of respiratory functions still remains unexplored. The present study aims towards finding out the relationship of GBE with SGRQ in COPD patients.

Methodology: It was a correlational study design which includes 22 COPD male Subjects of age between 40-65 years already diagnosed with COPD patients in the study. . The subjects were randomly divided into two groups of (Group I, n=11, Group II, n=11), measurements of SGRQ and GBE were documented.

Results: There was a good correlation found between the Global Body Examination and St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (r = 0.910, p = .0001).


Title : Biology and Philosophy IV. The Presocratics.

Authors : Juan S. Gómez-Jeria

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Inner speech is examined and it is suggested that its appearance is limited to all or only some ‘Homo sapiens-with Neanderthal DNA-with Denisovan DNA’ mixed-breeds. The time relationships for Homo clausus, Homines aperti and animal-Homo are commented. Next, the appearance of the presocratic philosophers at Miletus and environs is analyzed trying to find a reasonable hypothesis explaining Thales’ work. An attempt to resemble the processes that produce sudden changes in Ionian poetry with those that 'produced' Thales’ works was unsuccessful. Archilochus’ works look like the product of poetic influences from the geographical environment (Middle East, Egypt, Crete, Persia). In the case of Thales, it seems that he was the right man at the right time and place since he was able to put in written form what he had learned in Egypt and Babylonia. I suggest as a basal cause of Archilochus’ and Thales’ works a biological predisposition manifested as, for example, curiosity or a need to share aspects of their Homo clausus with others.