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Volume 7 issue 3

S.No. Title & Authors Page No View
1

Title : Budget and Budgetary Control: A Pragmatic Approach to the Nigerian Infrastructure Dilemma

Authors : Oluwadare Joshua OYEBODE

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Abstract :

Planning involves developing objectives for the construction management, infrastructure development and preparation of various budgets to achieve desired objectives to avoid cost overrun and time extension. This study evaluates the impact of budgeting and budgetary control on the performance of manufacturing company in Nigeria with an approach to Nigerian Engineering Infrastructure. This was conducted using Cadbury Nigeria Plc., as case study. Since wants are plenty while resources are limited, every organization tends to find means by which it can get what it wants with the limited resources at its disposal. Therefore, firms seek to adopt the concept of budgeting and budgetary control to satisfy their needs at the least possible cost and at the same time fulfill their stewardship obligations to the numerous stakeholders. We adopted a descriptive research design with data gathered through questionnaire administered to respondents. Non-parametric tool of chi square was employed to analyze the data. Hypotheses were tested and analyzed on a 5% level of significance and it was revealed that budgeting is a useful tool that guides firms to evaluate whether their goals and objectives are actualized. Considering the changing environment in which firms now operate, it can be concluded that budget, which is a continuous management activity, should adapt to changes in the dynamic business environment in order to avoid infrastructural dilemma.                                                                     

01-08
2

Title : Impact of Environmental Laws and Regulations on Nigerian Environment

Authors : Oluwadare Joshua OYEBODE

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Abstract :

Environmental laws and regulations must be enacted for sustainability and improvement of Nigerian Environment. This paper analyzes and articulates the impact of environmental governance in Nigeria. It identified various environmental challenges confronting Nigeria and justification for regulation. This focused on strategies that will increase the efficiency of environmental regulation and ensure the optimal maximization of social and environmental welfare. Drawing from the economic analysis of legal rules this paper identified normative reasons for the poor formulation and implementation of environmental law in Nigeria which resulted in increased pollution and environmental injustice. The paper concluded by proffering practical regulatory techniques that can challenge policymaker to improve environment governance in Nigeria. On the basis of this analysis, innovate environmental governance strategy may be identified and new solutions developed. Environmental degradation has continued to generate unpleasant challenges for health and economic development in Nigeria. Some of these Problems include deforestation, pollution, global warming and improper pesticides. Despite environmental laws and policies targeted at ameliorating these problems, the situation in Nigeria seems degenerating owing to the fact that these laws are not effectively enforced. This paper analyses the use of environmental laws by different enforcement agencies in Nigeria, the methods of enforcement these agencies invoke, and the challenges they face in enforcing the relevant laws. These challenges include low-level constitutional provision for environmental protection, roles and conflicts in environmental management, undue adherence to legalism by the courts and absence of mandatory disclosure of information. Thus, the legislative objectives remain unachieved because enforcement is superficial; excessive time exists between non-compliance and enforcement; available punishment for non-compliance is inadequate; injured parties are not properly compensated; and some environmental crimes receive administrative instead of remedial measures or criminal punishments. The study advocates for the encouragement of private and public interest litigation, creation of procedure for enhancing public participation in Nigerian environmental protection, creation of environmental emergencies and establishment of environmental courts.

09-14
3

Title : Green Building: Imperative Panacea for Environmental Sustainability and Life Cycle Construction in Nigeria

Authors : Oluwadare Joshua OYEBODE

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Abstract :

Green Building is a concept that mitigates against the negative side effects of developmental activities on the environment. This paper assessed the feasibility of green building for environmental sustainability and life cycle of construction works. Various constructions related to green building were examined. The construction materials and methods used in Nigeria today, tend to have a deleterious effect on the environment around the construction site; either by the clearing of vegetation which leads to loss of wildlife, or the use of fossil fuels such as coal; which emit greenhouse gasses. It has been discovered that lack of renewable energy harvesting plants assists in countering the effects of the depleting natural resources, as well as water/sewage treatment plants, recycling plants and so on. This do not encourage green environments as these have adverse effects on the depletion of raw materials, and this therefore helps increase the prices of newly manufactured goods. This also has adverse effects on the economy as it can lead to inflation and high demand for products. More research work should be done on this for economy of construction works, possible, implementation and sustainable environment.

15-29
4

Title : Mesenteric Lymphangioma with Small Intestinal Volvulus in Teenager

Authors : Dr. Sagar Bhalerao, Dr. Rajnish Nagarkar, Dr. Aditya Adhav, Dr. Sucheta Gandhe

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Abstract :

Lymphangioma is a benign disease characterized by roliferation of lymphatic tissue that is initiated from early failure of communication of lymphatic spaces along with normal main draining lymphatic vessels. Lymphangioma is known as a congenital malformation instead of an acquired tumor. Lymphangiomas often extend deep into the tissues while they are histologically benign. Based on current evidence, lymphangiomas are rarely observed in the mediastinum. Less than 1% of cases are observed in the retroperitoneum and mesentery region. We report an uncommon case of mesenteric lymphangioma with small intestinal volvulus in a 16-year old female.The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy followed by histological examination. As per the reports, cystic non-communicating channels of variable sizes. The patient is currently doing well and undergoing nutritional and psychological support.

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5

Title : 45 Males and 94 Females Undergoing Chronic Peritoneal Dialysis: Comparison and Correlation of Their Dialytic Treatment and Body Composition

Authors : 45 Males and 94 Females Undergoing Chronic Peritoneal Dialysis: Comparison and Correlation of Their Dialytic Treatment and Body Composition

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Abstract :

A wide selection of data of 45 males versus those of 94 females were compared and correlated with 11 variables selected from the available variables. The estimation of creatinine clearance by the Cockroft formula was studied in depth, and both its significant correlation with measured clearances and its overestimation were noted. Scores were attributed to the p values of performed correlations to mathematically compare the correlations. The magnitude of the dispersion of the scores was evaluated by the ratio mean of the scores/standard deviation, which is the width of the range of the significance of the correlations, thus providing the relevance of the correlations for each basal variable. Lean Body Mass (LBM) was calculated, using the Boer formula as well as the serum creatinine, and it was shown that LBM was strongly related to the body structure represented by BMI. The study of    total body water (TBW) showed its significantly greater size in males, but it has a significantly greater size in females as a percentage of body weight . This results in a greater dry mass in males and greater body water with respect to weight in females. No differences between males and females resulted from age, the relationship of weight/height in terms of BMI, or the efficacy of treatment. It was concluded that 1) age is relevant in estimating the size of creatinine clearance, as shown by the creatinine clearance via Cockroft, but it overestimated the creatinine clearance; 2) Lean Body Mass is proportional to BMI; 3) the variability of statistical significance in a correlation is well defined by the scores values; and 4) dry mass is significantly greater in males, while body water is greater in females in terms of percentage of weight.

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