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Volume 7 issue 1

S.No. Title & Authors Page No View
1

Title : Biology and Philosophy. III. About Mongrels and How to Shoot down a Crab from a Tree

Authors : Juan S. Gomez-Jeria

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Abstract :

The history of mating between Homo sapiens, Neanderthals, Denisovans and one or more unknown hominids is presented. It is stated that the Sub-Saharan populations are the only ones deserving to be called Homo sapiens sapiens. The remaining population of the world is composed by Homo sapiens with different percentage of DNA coming from Neanderthals, Denisovans and/or possibly other hominids. It is suggested that this mixture produced individuals able to build great civilizations. Finally some comments about an incorrect comparison between Athenians and current people are presented.

01-05
2

Title : Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals (Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn) Contamination of Edible Vegetables in Ogoja Urban Area of Cross River State

Authors : Akpe Michael Akomaye, Ubua Placidus Unimuyi , Apebende Gloria Chioma

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Abstract :

The mean concentration of Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn in edible vegetables grown in Ogoja Urban area of Cross River State was determined both in the vegetables and the soil. The Target Harzard Quotient (THQ) was also calculated to assess the possible health risk associated with the consumption of the vegetables. To achieve this, samples of eight vegetables namely: Amaranthus spp, Corchorus olitoruis, Murraya koenigii, Ocininum grattissimum, Solanum melongena, Talinum triangulare, Telfairia occidentalis and Vernonia amygdalina were collected together with the soil samples where they were planted during the rainy and dry seasons of the year. They were digested and analyzed for mean metal concentration using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). The results show that the mean concentration range of Cr and Zn in the soil was 0.004-0.016 mgkg-1 and .329 – 1.077mgkg-1 respectively in dry season, and 0.004-0.018 mgkg-1 and 0.333 – 1.265 mgkg-1 respectively in rainy season. The mean concentration of Cr and Zn accumulated by the vegetables ranged from 0.002 – 0.008mgkg-1 and 0.015 – 0.083 mgkg-1 respectively in dry season, and 0.003 – 0.008 mgkg-1 and 0.017 – 0.087 migkg-1 respectively in rainy season. Ni and Pb were string variables as their concentration was not detected both in the soil and in the vegetables. The Target Harzard Quotient (THQ) values of Cr and Zn for all the vegetables were less than 1 indicating there is no health risk associated with the consumption of the vegetables at the moment. The results also reveal that there is some level of heavy metal (Cr and Zn) contamination in the area and the vegetables, though very low, and within the permissible limits of World Health Organisation ( WHO). There is no significant difference between the results of the dry and rainy season, indicating the source of contamination of not necessary from air pollution source or irrigation water but from indiscriminate disposal of waste (anthropogenic sources). The government and relevant agencies should monitor and evaluate the environment in this aspect and create awareness for public health.

05-09
3

Title : Relative Importance of the Free and Fixed Bacterial Community in Three Lacustrine Ecosystems having Different Trophic Status

Authors : Raoui Sidi Mohammed, Rachiq Saad , Bouayad Kenza, Chadli Nourddine

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The present work consists in determining the total bacterial densities and biomasses and the relative importance of free and fixed bacterioplankton in three lacustrine environments with different trophic status: Pavin lake, oligomesotrophe, and the Villerest reservoir, eutrophe (two French ecosystems) and the dam Allal Fassi, mesotrophe (Morocco). Along the water column, the results obtained showed bacterial densities that ranged from 0.60 to 7 x 105 cells.ml-1 at Pavin Lake, from 1.01 to 9.86 x 106 cells.ml-1 in the Allal Fassi dam reservoir and from 0.70 to 12.90 x 106 cells.ml-1 in the Villerest reservoir. The average recorded bacterial biomass ranged from 0.73 to 1.92 μgC.l-1 in Pavin Lake, from 10.50 to 81.10 μgC.l-1 in the Allal Fassi dam and from 29.40 to 60.52 μgC.l-1 in the Villerest reservoir. Seasonal variations show fluctuations in bacterial densities for the three environments. The proportion of free and fixed bacteria revealed high percentages of the fraction of free bacteria with 96.10% ; 90.50% ; 87.90% at the surface layers respectively at Pavin Lake, Villerest Reservoir and Allal Fassi Reservoir. Mean recorded values ​​of fixed bacteria at all depths were 4.26% ; 10.35% ; 17.13% of the total bacterial density respectively in Pavin Lake, Villerest Reservoir and Allal Fassi Reservoir.

10-14
4

Title : The Quantitative Importance of DASRI in the Regional Hospital Center of Tetouan City, Morocco

Authors : Raoui Sidi Mohammed, Bougatouch Youssef, Chadli Brahim, Errachidi Faouzi, Chadli Noureddine

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This work determined the quantitative importance of the daily production of hospital waste and the share of safe waste and DASRI in the 18 units of care of the Tetouan Regional Hospital Center over a period of four weeks (April 2017). The results showed a total monthly production of DASRI were 5985 Kg. The daily production was 0.92 Kg/bed/day. The typology of the DASRI revealed a dominance of infectious objects whose weight ranged from 130.50 Kg  to 276.70 Kg. The placentas was 71.80 Kg  to 87.50 Kg and the sharpness ranged from 0.60 Kg to 16.80 Kg. The average production of DASRI in the different units of care of the hospital has been variable. The high amounts were recorded in hemodialysis service (P = 50.33 Kg/day), emergencies (P = 36 Kg/day) and obstetrics (P = 30.77 Kg/day). The low productions were observed in ophthalmology and men's and women's surgery services.

15-18
5

Title : Agricultural Cooperative Societies and Poverty Reduction in Zambia: The Case of Kamangango Farmers’ Cooperative Society Limited in Kaoma District

Authors : Munzele Paos

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Abstract :

This study was conducted to assess the contribution made by agricultural cooperative societies on poverty reduction in Zambia with particular reference to agricultural input supply in Kamangango farmers’ cooperative society Limited in Kaoma district, of Western Province, Zambia. The cooperative society had 70 registered members. The relevant data was collected from 47 randomly selected respondents and analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The study found out that the cooperative society contributed to poverty reduction amongst members by offering agriculture inputs and marketing services, which in turn, increased the members’ disposable incomes and food security. Despite the challenges such as bad roads, high cost of seeds and fertilizers, lack of credit facilities, faced by cooperatives in providing goods and services to its members to fight poverty, the study recommended that the Government and Non-Governmental Organizations should encourage the formation of more cooperatives for improved service delivery to members.

 

19-22
6

Title : Restructuring, Secession and True Federalism: Ethnic Agitations and the Deepening crises of Nigerian Federalism

Authors : Gabriel Tyungu, Godwin Koko

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One of the problems bedeviling the post-colonial Nigerian state is the failure of attempts to wield together the disparate ethnic nationalities that were brought together by colonial fiat, otherwise called the amalgamation of 1914. Thus, the desire to maintain the colonial status quo has seen the country go through series of military coups and a bloody civil war to sustain the nation’s indivisibility. However, the ugly experience of the civil war, it would seem has not taught sufficient lessons on the imperatives of harmonious co-existence of various ethnic groups without confronting each other. The main contention has been competition over access to power and material resources by the various ethnic nationalities that fear the control of power and material resources by any of the ethnic groups would lead to their domination and marginalization. This has given rise to all sorts of agitations regarding the country’s nature of federalism and the need to restructure so as to provide a balance federal structure capable of allaying the fear of marginalization. It is the contention of this endeavor that the fear of marginalization is behind recent uproar in the country about the restructuring debate and other sundry issues such as secession and calls for a return to regionalism and resource control.

23-27
7

Title : A Comparison of Body Composition, Residual Biological Function and Dialytic Treatment of 20 Males and 19 Females Undergoing Chronic Peritoneal Dialysis

Authors : Giancarlo Ruggieri

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In this study, 34 variables were compared among 20 males and 19 females undergoing chronic peritoneal dialysis based on four approaches of elaboration. The variables were selected from among a large number of variables of a database, that were available for both males and females. The first approach compared the data between males and females. The second approach performed a correlation between two series of variables available in males and between two series of variables available in females.  64 variables showed 80 positive correlations, and consistent results are shown in four tables; only the statistically significant results are shown. The third approach compared the body water content, calculated as total body water according to the formula by Watson, intracellular water, and extracellular water between males and females. The different forms of body water  were normalized by height, weight and body mass index (BMI). Normalization  affected the outcomes of values of intracellular and extracellular body water differently. The relevance of these different modifications was shown to depend on the variance of the indexing variables. Total body water, intracellular water and extracellular water were significantly different between males and females, with higher values for males. The only exception was the extracellular water/intracellular water ratio, which was higher for females, showing that females most likely have a larger amount of body water despite their lower body size.

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