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Volume 5 Issue 4

S.No. Title & Authors Page No View
1

Title : 3D Printing of Metallic Implants

Authors : Tomasz Seramak, Katarzyna Zasinska, Andrzej Zielinski, Michal Gubanski

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The fabrication of various elements, solid and open porous structures of stainless steel and Ti alloy is described. The process was started with the design of 3D models in CAD/CAM  system. The 3D models were transformed into *.stl files and then the manufacturing process of the real structures by means of the selective laser melting with the SLM Realizer 100 3D printer was made. The paper shows the porous specimens made for possible application in medicine and the prosthetic bridges. The appropriate mechanical strength is the important property of porous structures for medical application and for curved prosthetic bridges it is necessary to take into account the thermal stresses, which appear during their SLM/DMLS manufacturing process.

01-04
2

Title : Historical Trend of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Contamination in Recent Dated Sediment Cores from The Imo River, Southeast Nigeria

Authors : Inyang O. Oyo-Ita , Orok E. Oyo-Ita

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The distribution and historical changes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination in recent sediment cores from the Imo River were evaluated over the last ca 5 decades. The concentrations of total PAHs (TPAHs-sum of parent and alkyl) ranging from 402.37 ng/g dry weight (dw) at the top layer of the Estuary site (ES6; 0-5 cm) to 92,388.59 ng/g dw at the near-top layer of the Afam site (AF5; 5-10 cm) indicated that PAHs contamination was localized not only between sites but also within the same cores. Sediment-depth profiles for the four (Afam-AF, Mangrove-MG, Estuary-ES and illegal Petroleum refinery-PT) cores generally revealed irregular TPAHs patterns, except the fact that the levels became maximized at the near-top layers (5-10 cm; ca.1997-2005). This time-frame coincided with the period of intensive oil bunkering/pipeline vandalism by the Niger Delta militant groups. The general decline in TPAHs levels up-cores to the most recent layers (0-5 cm) was attributed to the recent offer of amnesty to the Niger Delta militants and subsequent effort by the Nigerian government in clamping down the illegal activity of the economic saboteurs. Examination of perylene distributions down cores revealed natural terrestrial biogenic, pyrogenic and non-marine petrogenic origins for the compound at different sites. Thus, in view of the uncertainty surrounding the mechanism of perylene formation, the study highlighted the need for more attention to be paid to the involvement of terrigenous instead of aquatic OC in arriving at the probable mechanism for the compound.

05-24
3

Title : Analysis of Single RF Performance on MIMO-OFDM System Using Turbo Code and V-BLAST MMSE Detection

Authors : I Gede Puja Astawa, Rommy Aditya Pratama, Aries Pratiarso

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Along with the passing time and recent technology, the advancement of information technology has been increased in the wireless technology. The common methods that are used in this wireless communication are MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) and OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing). MIMO is a system stands for a couple antenna on the transmitter and receiver which are working on themultipath component. While OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) is a transmission method using multicarrier technique, dividing spectrum frequency into a couple subcarrier. The combination of MIMO and OFDM results in a high-speed transfer data system. The Single RF has reduced the usage of RF Front-End into a bigger matrix size in the conventional MIMO system. This final project will discuss about the Single RF system of MIMO-OFDM with the V-BLAST (Vertical Bell Laboratories Space-Time) and MMSE (Minimum Mean Square Error) detectionwhich is used to remove ISI (Intersymbol Interference) combined with theTurbo Code,where theTurbo Encoder that lies on the transmitter side is also theTurbo Decoder in the receiver side. MIMO-OFDM utilizesthe Single RF (Radio Frequency) basis. The test on this final project will include a Single RF antenna on the MIMO-OFDM system, MIMO-OFDM with the V-BLAST detector and MMSE MIMO-OFDM with the Turbo Code, by using 64 QAM modulation. The expected result is the analysis performance of the Single RF on the MIMO-OFDM system using Turbo Code and V-BLAST MMSEDetection. The system will be shown on theBit Error Rate (BER) toward the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR).

25-30
4

Title : An Axiomatic System for a Physical or Digital but Continuous 3-Dimensional Euclidean Geometry, Without Infinite Many Points

Authors : Konstantinos E. Kyritsis

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This paper is concerned with finding an axiomatic system, so as to define the 3-dimensional Euclidean space, without utilizing the infinite ,that can imply all the known geometry for practical applied sciences and engineering applications through computers , and for more natural and perfect education of young people in  the Euclidean geometric thinking. In other words by utilizing only finite many visible and invisible points and only finite sets, and only real numbers with finite many digits, in the decimal representation. The inspiration comes from the physical matter , rigid, liquid and gaseous, which consists of only finite many  particles in the physical reality. Or from the way that continuity is produced in a computer screen from only finite many invisible pixels . We present such a system of axioms and explain why it is chosen in such a way. The result is obviously not equivalent, in all the details, with the classical Euclidean geometry.  Our main concern is consistency and adequacy but not independence of the axioms between them. It is obvious that within the space of a single paper, we do not attempt to produce all the main theorems of the Euclidean geometry, but present only the axioms.

31-43
5

Title : Effect of Information Technology on Fundraising for NPOs: A Case Study on Chinese Foundations

Authors : Zhiming Liu

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Donations are a significant source of funding for nonprofit organizations (NPOs). Enhancing the organizational fundraising capacity is essential to organizational survival and development. This paper analyzed the effect of IT on the fundraising capacity of Chinese NPOs. An empirical analysis was conducted on 390 Chinese foundation organizations. Results show that the Internet has positive influence on the fundraising capacity of NPOs.

44-48
6

Title : Survey and Comparative Analysis of Energy Saving Mechanisms for LTE-Advanced Femtocells

Authors : Nikos I. Passas

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In this paper we study dynamic energy saving mechanisms for the Long Term Evolution Advanced system (LTE-Advanced) with user-deployed cellular base stations (a.k.a. femtocells). In particular, we present a thorough review of different energy-saving approaches specific to LTE-Advanced networks, presenting existing component-level and system-level energy-saving techniques. Based on this review, we subsequently investigate 6 different mechanisms for dynamic cell deactivation and we evaluate them based on a) the user load in the cell, b) the traffic model, and c) the user mobility.

49-61
7

Title : Chemical Modification of Jute Fibers for Improving its Hydrophobicity and Dyeability with Reactive Dyes

Authors : Sharfun Nahar Arju , Md. Afsar Ali

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Dyeability of jute fabrics with reactive dyes is not very good due to its high crystallinity and high degree of orientation. To achieve this goal with a view to improving the dyeability of jute fabrics, a new approach of chemical modification of jute fibers has been proposed. Indosol-E50 (polyethylene polyamine), Glycidyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (Glytac) as well as conventional sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were used as modifiers for surface modification of jute fibers. In addition, reactive dye with and without sodium chloride (NaCl) and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) was used to observe the nature of modification of jute fibers. Treated fibers were characterized by water absorbency, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra, color measurement, and wash fastness test. Application of Indosol E-50 changes the hydrophilic nature of the jute fibers significantly. Compared to the raw jute fibers, the modified jute fibers treated with reactive dye without using NaCl and Na2CO3 had higher color strength (K/S) values under the same dye concentration. Furthermore, the dyeing of Glytac (with NaOH) and Indosol E-50 treated jute fibers ensured higher K/S, fixation, and better washing fastness and rendered the fiber surface more hydrophobic than those of raw jute fibers.

62-69
8

Title : Experimental Demonstration of the Relational Character of Time in Natural Processes; Concept of Time in the Relational World

Authors : A. Titov

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Using new experimental techniques, studies of thermal evolution processes are performed in systems, which are beyond the description of theoretical physics. Evolution process is characterized by braking symmetries in time and in space and by violations of conservation laws of energy and momentum. It is shown experimentally that the superposition principle is not valid for electromagnetic (EM) fields interacting with material objects; the Poynting vector of the external field is the source of changes in the properties and structure of the irradiated object; the thermal hysteresis loop presents a record of the process in two locations. The interaction of material objects through common EM field, which is carrying the contributions of the hysteresis effects in the parts of each interacting object, can be described only by the concept of a process that is characterized by its dependence on the huge number of correlated influence factors. The flux of Poynting vector of common EM field through boundary surface of the irradiated object is the reason for the development of the thermal process inside it, thus realizing the interrelation of one to all in the Leibniz relational World. Defining the concept of time as a reference process in experiments, in which the records of the states of one of the process are performed in terms of the states of the reference process in some material detector, we obtain the concept of time as a natural development of the basic principles of G. W. Leibniz, E. Mach, A. Einstein, W. Pauli, D. Kleppner. 

70-99
9

Title : Comparative Evaluation of Performance of McGrath® and GlideScope® Videolaryngoscopes with Conventional Macintosh Laryngoscope for Laryngoscopy and Intubation in Patients with Immobilised Cervical Spine - A Randomised Controlled Trial

Authors : Rashmi Salhotra, AK Sethi, Deepti Agarwal, Medha Mohta, Varun Arora

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Videolaryngoscopes are nowadays very commonly being used. This study evaluated McGrath®, GlideScope® and Macintosh laryngoscopes for intubation in patients with normal airways but immobilised cervical spine, thereby simulating a difficult airway scenario.This prospective, randomised controlled trial was conducted on60 adult ASA I/II patients of either sex, between 18-60 years of age undergoing elective surgical procedures requiring general anaesthesia with tracheal intubation.Patients were randomly allocated to one of the three groups, depending on the laryngoscope used for intubation; Group MVL, McGrath® videolaryngoscope; Group GVL, GlideScope® and Group ML, Macintosh laryngoscope. Cervical collar was applied after induction of anaesthesia. Success rate of intubation in the first attempt was similar with all three laryngoscopes.Time taken to intubate was longer with McGrath® (41.1±8.6 s) compared to GlideScope®(34.5±7.1 s) and Macintosh (31.8±9.3 s) laryngoscopes. The mean percentage of glottic opening(POGO) score was significantly better with McGrath® (p=0.004) and GlideScope®(p=0.001) than with Macintosh laryngoscope.Cormack Lehane grading with both videolaryngoscopeswas also better thanthat with Macintosh (p=0.042 and p=0.003 vs. McGrath® and GlideScope® respectively). Laryngoscopy difficulty score and intubation difficulty score with GlideScope® werecomparable to McGrath®butlowerthan Macintosh laryngoscope. Both videolaryngoscopes, McGrath® and GlideScope®, provided better glottic view compared to Macintosh laryngoscope in patients with immobilised cervical spine. GlideScope® allowed easier laryngoscopy and intubation with minimum manoeuvres as compared to Macintosh laryngoscope. 

100-105
10

Title : Gender Difference in Specific Congenital Anomalies

Authors : Adil Elghanmi, Rachid Razine, Rachid Berrada

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Limited data is available concerning the gender distribution of various congenital anomaly. This study investigated sex differences in the prevalence of congenital anomalies, overall, in a tertiary teaching hospital in Rabat, Morocco.

Methods: Information on congenital anomalies occurring among pregnancies from January the 1st 2011 to December 31st, 2014 were extracted from the obstetric ward of Maternité Souissi, Rabat, birth register. Anomalies were categorized by groups, subtypes. Frequency in males to that in females were calculated for all of congenital anomaly.

Results:During this 4-year period, there were 68704 birth delivered at Maternite Souissi, the obstetrical department of a Tertiary teaching hospital of Rabat, the capital of Morocco. Out of this birth number, 706 showed congenital malformations. The prevalence rate of congenital malformations was 1.02 %. This study, shows also that males newborns (57.9 %) had more congenital malformations than females (40.5%).

Conclusion:This study adds to the growing evidence of sex-specific differences in the prevalence of a wide range of congenital anomaly.

106-107
11

Title : Personalized Course Content by 2-Tuple Fuzzy Linguistic Model

Authors : Ming Li,Yueyun Chen

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It is inefficient for a teacher to illustrate all of the course content in details. Due to evaluate the course content and provide the fitting course, this paper proposed an approach based on 2-tuple fuzzy linguistic model. Firstly 2-tuple and its related operators is used to express and calculate the evaluation information. Then the weight of each studentis calculated and each part of the course are sorted. Teachers arrange the course by the evaluation result. Finally, an example of the information management course is given to demonstrate the calculation process of the proposed method.

108-111