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Volume 5 Issue 2

S.No. Title & Authors Page No View
1

Title : Micropropagation of Carob Tree (Ceratonia siliqua): Somatic Embryogenesis from Immature Seeds

Authors : Vassiliki Georgiou, Chrysanthi Chimona, Sophia Rhizopoulou

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Somatic embryos of carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.) were induced from segments excised from immature seeds when cultured on Murashige and Skoog (M.S.) medium supplemented with a gradient of concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BA). Roots and shoots were also formed in the same media. Besides culture media composition, the developmental stage of the explants showed a strong influence on somatic embryogenesis, with embryos and cotyledons providing high levels of induction; thus, elevated frequencies of development occurred on culture media containing various concentrations of BA. The presence of morphologically normal and abnormal somatic embryos was also observed. Upon transfer into full- and half-strength M.S. medium supplemented with sucrose (3%), plantlets were coming through embryos. Attempts to induce embryogenic callus from immature seeds of carob tree were successful. The resulting outgrowths were very high in embryogenetic potential from green immature seeds of carob tree and expants transferred into M.S. enriched with B.A. developed a large number of somatic embryos.

01-04
2

Title : The Kidney Involvement In Inborn Errors Of Metabolism

Authors : Athanasios Evangeliou, Maria Gogou, Despoina Tramma

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Inborn errors of metabolism are characterized by a significant heterogeneity in pathophysiological mechanisms and clinical manifestations. A variety of kidney disorders, inherited or acquired, can consist clinical signs of metabolic disorders. The most frequent of them include Fanconi syndrome, renal tubular acidosis, nephrolithiasis, renal cysts and acute kidney injury. On the other hand, many types of inborn errors of metabolism (carbohydrate disorders, lysosomal disorders, organic acidemias, mitochondrial disorders, purine and pyrimidine disorders) can be associated with specific renal disorders. Investigation for renal manifestations should be a necessary part of the routine follow-up of these children, while the recognition of  specific patterns of renal involvement must raise suspicion for an underlying inborn error of metabolism.

05-08
3

Title : Hygienic Quality of Raw Cow Milk Produced by Smallholder Dairy Farmers in BeniMellelarea in Morocco

Authors : Nadia Ferdous, RachidHnini, FatihaChigr, Mohamed Najimi

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This study was conducted to evaluate the hygienic quality of raw cow milk produced by smallholder dairy farmers and cooperatives (collecting centers) in BeniMellal area in Morocco. Hygienic quality of milk was determined by assessing the analysis of Total mesophilic aerobic flora or Total Bacterial Count,  Total Coliforms Count, Fecal coliforms count and fungi (Yeast and Molds).  The objective of this study was to evaluate the global milk quality in Moroccan dairy herds (hygienic and pathogenic parameters) and the perspectives on dairy development.For this, we evaluated the variations in the overall quality of raw milk: bacteriological and hygienic characterizations. Thus, samples of raw cow's milk produced in 50 farms and cooperatives were selected from different geographical areas in BeniMellal region. The investigation has concerned different cattle farms with different breeding procedures. Taken altogether, the samples analyzed show a moderate to high level of contamination of raw milk during the four seasons investigated exceeding generally the accepted limits. The most contaminated samples were found during the warm seasons: spring and autumn. However small but encouraging load levels percentage is evidenced reflecting an effort in hygienic procedures for the collection of raw milk and its storage in conditions respecting hygiene and temperature. Concerning the high level contamination, for classical causes classical results. Indeed, transportation, milking and pre-storage conditions as well as climate constitute the main factors for heavy bacterial and fungal contamination Taken together these variations reflect essentially differences in practical breeding and milk collecting procedures. 

09-16
4

Title : A 5-Year Review of Adolescent Gynecological Emergencies in a Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria

Authors : Abeshi Sylvester E, Ago Boniface U, Emechebe Cajetan I, Njoku Charles O

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BACKGROUND- Over the last decade, increased advocacy has been drawn towards the need for focused attention on women’s health as an index of a nation’s development. Adolescent gynecology is a unique subspecialty that encompasses the reproductive health care of girls and young women under the age of 20years. With the increasing economic downturn, easy access to the internet and social media, the adolescents are more vulnerable to life style changes that expose them to reproductive health challenges. Periodic review of cases managed in any health facility gives an insight on the way forward in confronting encountered challenges.

OBJECTIVES- To highlight the trends of gynecological emergency cases presented at this facility in the background of exploits by the adolescents in recent times. 

METHODOLOGY- This was a retrospective study carried out in the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Cross River State, South-South Nigeria. The case folders of patients were retrieved from the records unit of the department. Information onage, level of education, marital status, occupation, contraceptive use, sexual relationshipsand presenting complaints were collected, collated, inputted and analyzed using Epi-info version 7 and presented in tables as frequencies and percentages.

RESULTS- The hospital attended to over 4,849 gynecological cases over the 5year period. Adolescents made up 2,584 (53.3%) cases, of which 2052 (79.4%) were emergencies. The common presentations were incomplete abortion/miscarriage 880(42.9%), pelvic inflammatory disease 630 (30.7%), ectopic pregnancy 268(13.1%), abnormal vaginal bleeding/abnormal menses 193(9.4%), and sexual assault 81(3.9%).

CONCLUSION- Adolescents encounter lots of challenges with issues of reproductive health,which may have a huge impact on their future fertility. As this group is often either uninformed or misinformed, additional attention is needed the safeguard their reproductive health. 

17-21
5

Title : Water Economy Through Matching Plant Root Elongation to Mediterranean Landscapes

Authors : Chysanthi Chimona, Sophia Rhizopoulou

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Young plants of Ceratonia siliqua L., Myrtus communis L., Nerium oleander L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ligustrum japonicum Thunb. and Pittosporum tobira (Thunb.) Aiton were grown in long tubes as well in rhizotrons. After a period of acclimation to the conditions of the experimental construction under normal watering conditions, some plants were watered whereas other plants remained unwatered for a period of one month. During the studying period the plants have been observed and regular measurements of roots and above ground parts development were taken. The results show the resistance of the Mediterranean plants (C. siliqua, M. communis, N. oleander) to water deficit in comparison to plants that are often used in parks and urban horticulture (L. japonicum, P. tobira), whereas R. officinalis shows an intermediate stage of endurance to drought.

22-24
6

Title : New Strategies to Develop Effective Learning Environments that Support Learners: Real Practical Cases

Authors : Dr.Ghossoon M.W. ALSadoon

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Structured teaching practices and student-oriented teaching practices both contribute to a positive classroom environment, promoting teachers’ self-efficacy. In the contexts of many countries the classroom environment is believed to impact student outcomes.

The main problem of this paper is borne out of the need to make the learning process more effective and to improve learning outcomes among students. In bridging this gap in knowledge, the author employed different supporting tools, such as the whiteboard, classroom, data show, software, office visits, assignments, and group work.

The objective of this paper is to identify how teachers can create the best learning environment for maximum achievement of the students’ learning outcomes.

This paper discusses different real and varied examples which were based on the examination of the following: special needs, students at risk of dismissal due to their low GPA, and limitations affecting open learning materials (OLM).

In conclusion, this study has revealed that the teachers have a positive feedback and enhanced performance for the students with special needs’ in the classroom by implementing specific strategies to build students’ confidence and encourage them to compete with their peers. For the academically disadvantaged students, special advisory assistance and associated support systems should be given to help boost their performance.

Also, the new platform as proposed in this paper is more advantageous and amenable for students to work more efficiently and seamlessly than other platforms.

 

25-28
7

Title : The Perception of Employee on the Environmental Benefits towards e-Hrm Practices in Public Sectors: A Case Study of Nigeria

Authors : Bukoye Kazeem Oyebanji, Rezian-na Muhammed Kassim

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This study focuses on the factors affecting the implementation of E-HRM Practices in Public Sectors mainly the environmental benefit of paper reduction. This study was conducted within the Perception of a developing nation (Nigeria). In recent years, research evidence has shown that more and more organizations have been replacing face-to-face human resource management activities with electronic human resource management (e-HRM). E-HRM facilitates the HR function to create dynamic and operational capabilities and contributes greatly on HRM effectiveness. E-HRM played significant role in improving the performance of human resource (HR) departments in private sectors in minimizing the environment impact. Whereas it is expected that parallel influence would be found in public sectors, there is no empirical research evidence to support this proposition. Given the significant technical encroachments today, e-HRM as a strategic tool has grown to encompass seamless functionality to support organisations in providing tactical capability, reducing cost and continuous service improvement as well as the quality of service delivery. Result reveals that majority of the 10 agreed that impact to green environment, contribute to the organization performance and reducing the company cost.

29-31
8

Title : Research of Heavy Metals (Cu, Cr and Zn) Concentration in Bottom Sediments of Roadside Water Ponds

Authors : Audrone Mikalajune, Lina Vilniske

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Pollution of the water ponds with heavy metals is meant to be one of the basic ecological problems in the world. The problems of the environmental pollution with heavy metals are created by intensive growth of the cities, industrial development, growth of intensity of the transport and agricultural progress. Automobile transport is meant as one of the sources of the heavy metals in Lithuania. Such anthropogenic pollution depends on the intensity of transport, richness of the rainfall, composition of the exhaust gas, etc. Pollution of the water ponds that surround two main roads, two national roads and two regional gravelled roads with heavy metals (Cu, Cr and Zn) in particular periods of the year is analyzed in the article. After the experimental analyses were performed, it was assessed that ultimate concentrations of the heavy metals have appeared at spring, when the traffic was the most intensive (21500 automobiles/per day) of the water ponds bottom sediments at the distance of 10 m from the roadside and have reached Cr – 61 mg/kg, Cu – 29,6 mg/kg and Zn – 217,3 mg/kg. Minimal concentrations of the heavy metals of the water ponds bottom sediments were assessed at the environment of the gravel road, where the intensity of the traffic was the minimal (up to 400 automobiles per day) – there concentration of Cr has reached up to 33,8 mg/kg, Cu – up to 17,4 mg/kg and Zn – up to 84,5 mg/kg.

32-40
9

Title : General Features of Three Common Types of Cancer In a Southern Province of Turkey: Data From Antalya Province

Authors : Alparslan Merdin, Hulya Karakilinc, Hakan Sat Bozcuk

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Background & Aims: We aimed to evaluate the general  features  of  three  common types of cancer in a southern province of Turkey. Methods: All patients were  diagnosed with malignancy  between the years  2005 and 2010 (the year 2005 and 2010 included) , and registered by Antalya Provincial Health Directorate Cancer Registry Center (Antalya İl Sağlık Müdürlüğü Kanser Kayıt Merkezi) (AİSMKKM).The study included patients diagnosed with breast, lung or  prostate cancer between the defined time interval  and patients with a history of breast, lung or  prostate cancer followed by a  subsequent malignancy diagnosed between the defined time interval.  The study was a retrospective study. The study included 1977 breast cancer patients, 2680 lung cancer patients and 1840 prostate cancer patients. All the data included in the study were given by AİSMKKM.  We stratified data according to age, sex, stage and subtype of primary tumor of the patients. Results: 1442 of the patients with breast cancer  had invasive ductal type. Median age at the time of diagnosis were 51, 62, 69  for breast, lung and prostate cancer patients, respectively. Lastly, percentage of patients with advanced metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis for breast, lung and prostate cancer patients were 8.74%, 60.5% and 11.85%, respectively. Conclusion: People should be encouraged to participate in screening programs. 

41-43
10

Title : Dimensions of Environmental Graphic Design: A Socio-Artistic Study of Youth Aged 18-29 in Tehran City

Authors : Maryam Sheykhi

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The paper explores the impact of graphic design on youth from different dimensions. The built-environment of the changing world is much the result of the graphic development. It objectively and subjectively influences the youth followed by change in environment. Graphic design plays a major part today to improve the environment and keep it functional for all the sectors of the society with special reference to the youth. The present paper investigates the attitudes of youth towards a healthy environment. Providing solutions for the problems of form, function, usability etc. is widely in association with graphic design practice. The paper investigates how industrialization followed by urbanization changed the life patterns, and graphic and industrial design emerged to save the changing environment. To complete the research, 419 questionnaires were filled in by young students of age range 18-29, which were then tabulated and reflected in brief in the article.

44-53
11

Title : The Energy Spectrum of Defects in Silicon, Doped with Vanadium

Authors : Khojakbar S. Daliev

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In this work, using the methods of capacitance spectroscopy of the studied energy range of deep levels of vanadium and it is shown that the vanadium in silicon creates deep levels Ec − 0.45 eV and Ec − 0.52 eV and Ev +0.41 eV, depending on the type of conductivity of the initial silicon and the cooling rate of the sample after diffusion, and the level of Ec − 0.22 eV is a defect in the heat treatment. Performed a systematic analysis of the results on the study of silicon doped with vanadium. It is shown that the atoms of vanadium in silicon created a number of deep levels with different ionization energies.

54-56
12

Title : The Role of Business Enviromental and Strategy Alignment in the Optimization of Business Performance of Small Scale Manufacturing Companies in Indonesia

Authors : Lena Ellitan

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This research was conducted to test whether a conceptual model of manufacturing strategy relevant when applied in different research settings, the small and medium manufacturing companies in Indonesia. The study involved eighty-eight small and medium scale manufacturing companies yielding response rate of 17.6%. The study generally indicates that environmental uncertainty has no significant effect on the choice of competitive strategy and manufacturing strategy in small and medium scale companies. The study also indicate that both cost leadership and differentiation strategy has a significant effect  on the flexibility, cost leadership has a significant effect  on quality, differentiation strategy has a significant effect on the quality, manufacturing strategy choices that focuses on  cost is significantly influenced by the cost leadership strategy but not by a differentiation strategy, while the competitive strategy choices, both cost leadership and differentiation does not significantly effect delivery strategy. Competitive strategies simultaneously effect the financial performance, the partial cost leadership effects financial performance but differentiation does not effect financial performance.

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13

Title : An Analysis of The Impact of Agro-Ecological Zones on The Influence of The Key Factors That Affect Food Security: The Case of The Embu County in Kenya

Authors : Samuel Njiri Ndirangu, Stephen G. Mbogoh, Oliver L.E. Mbatia

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This paper is based on the results of a study that was carried out to determine the impact of agro-ecological zones (AEZs) on the influence of the key factors that affect household food security through a case study in the Embu County of Kenya. The Embu County was chosen for a case study because it is endowed with most of the various types of AEZs found in Kenya. The three agro-ecological zones covered in the case study were the Sunflower-Zone (UM 4 and LM 3), the Coffee Zone (UM 1-3) and the Tea Zone (LH 1-2), based on [1] categorization of the AEZs in Kenya. The study analyzed and evaluated the food security data collected from 384 farm-households which had randomly been selected from the three AEZs in the Embu County using a 4-stage cluster sampling method. Household caloric acquisition method was used to compute a household food security index (HFSI) that was used to measure the household food security status.  Previous studies had established that the key factors that influence food security in Kenya include farm size, access to and use of modern technologies in farming, access to agricultural extension services, farm household size, age and education level (literacy) for the head of household and household dependency ratio. This study found that the AEZs had a significant impact on the effects of the key factors that influence household food security in Kenya. The effect of farm size on food security was found to be positive in the Sunflower and Tea zones, but not in the Coffee Zone. Technology adoption was found to have a significant effect on food security in the Sunflower and Coffee Zones, but not in the Tea Zone. Access to agricultural extension was found to have a significant effect on food security in the Coffee and Tea zones, but not in the Sunflower Zone. Household size was found to have a significant effect on food security in the Sunflower and Coffee zones, but not in the Tea Zone. The dependency ratio was found to have a significant effect on food security in the Coffee and Tea Zones but not in the Sunflower Zone. The age of the household head and/or wife was found to have a significant effect on food security in the Tea Zone, but not in the Coffee and Sunflower Zones. The level of education for the head of the household was found to have a significant effect on food security in the Sunflower Zone but not in the Coffee and Tea Zones. On the basis of the study findings, it is concluded that the effects of the factors that influence food security vary by the AEZs. Therefore, AEZ-specific measures are recommended to enhance household food security in different areas of Kenya.

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