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Volume 4 Issue 4

S.No. Title & Authors Page No View
1

Title : Chat Application with A Codified Information Traveling Option

Authors : Barbara Emma Sanchez Rinza, Ruth Itzel Gutierrez Castro, Emmanuel Felix Valenzuela

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Cryptology is the science that involves the study of the various techniques to keep information secure. It is the science that deals with the theoretical problems related to the safety in the interchange, between a transmitter and a receptor, of codified information traveling in a communication channel [1].

The project consist of building a software to cipher text messages using a variant on the Playfair cipher method, which is an algorithm used in cryptology. The variant consist on extend the allowed characters from Playfair to include every character on the ASCII code. In this case, a 16x16 matrix will be used, to be able to also include the extended characters. The project was developed in Matlab, a programming and design platform that is able to do matrix manipulation and calculation easily.

For the possible implementation, we’re going to use a virtual application developed in Matlab using the TCP/IP protocol to send and receive encrypted messages.

01-03
2

Title : Solid Tumours of Childhood in Sokoto, Nigeria

Authors : Saddiku M Sahabi, Kabiru Abdullahi, Christopher S Lukong C, Stephen P Agbo

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Background:Childhood tumours are known to occur commonly in developing countries and in recent times there have been growing concerns about the incidence and management of these cancers in tropical Africa.We undertook this study to determine the relative frequencies of solid childhood malignancies in Sokoto North-western Nigeria.

Materials and Methods: Hospital-based data of histological and cytologically confirmed cases of solidmalignancies in children, aged ≤ 15 years, was collated over a period of 10 years. All records of patients with the diagnosis of childhood malignancies were retrieved from histology and cytology register in the Department of Histopathology in the period,January 2006 to December 2015.All histological sections had been stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E and the cytological specimens were stained with both Papanicolaou and Giemsa stains. The data were analyzed for age, sex and histological types using SPSS version 20.0 software. The results are presented in form of simple frequency tables using Diagnostic guidelines by the  International Classification of Childhood Cancer (ICCC).

Results:A total of 358 children aged 15 years or less, with confirmed malignant disease, was recorded. This constituted 9.1% of all malignancies diagnosed in the same period with a Male: Female ratio of 1.2:1mean age (year) of 7.45.The age range was 0 to 15 years. There were more male cancers (n=196 54.7%) compared to female cancers (n=162, 45.3%).The top five childhood solid malignancies were Rhabdomyosarcoma 112(31.3), Retinoblastoma 62(17.3%), Burkitts lymphoma 45(12.6%), Nephroblastoma 31(8.7%) and Osteosarcoma 19(5.3%).  

Conclusion: Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most prevalent solid malignancy of childhood seen in this region and the majority were of the embryonal type,this  contrasts with what is observed in developed countries   where  and neoplasms central nervous system  predominate.

04-09
3

Title : Epidemiological Survey of Malignant Neoplasms in Sokoto, Nigeria

Authors : Saddiku M Sahabi, Kabiru Abdullahi

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Background:There is an increasing trend in the incidence of cancers in developing countries without commensurate data on the pattern and spread of individual tumour variant or sites of predilection. This study aims to provide current data on the frequency, histological types and characteristics of histopathologically confirmed cancers in Sokoto, North West Nigeria.

Material and methods: A descriptive 10 years (2006-2015) analysis of all diagnosed cancers in the Department of Histopathology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto. Archives of all histology reports, tissue slides and paraffin blocks of patients’ biopsies that had been stored were studied. The data were analyzed for age, sex and histological types classified using the diagnostic criteria provided by the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O)

Result: A total of 3933 cancer patients were registered at the histopathology department of UDUTH during the ten-year period. There were more female cancers (n=2260 57.5%) compared to male cancers (n=1673, 42.5%). The overall mean age was 44.28years, median age 45.0years, modal age 50years and SD 18.69. Males (mean age 45.77, median age in male 50.0, modal age 60 and SD was 21.03) were significantly older than females (mean age 43.18, median age 45.0, modal age 50, and SD was 16.67) year. The Adult cancers accounted for 90.9% (n = 3575) and childhood cancers accounted for 9.1% (n= 358). Overall, the ten most common sites of cancer involvement were the breast 763(19.4%), cervix 312(7.9%), prostate 267(6.8%), lymph node 248(6.3%), bladder 191(4.9%), skin 225(3.6%), rectum 114(2.9%), ovary 110(2.8%), eye 97(2.5%) and soft tissue 95(2.4). In males, the most frequent cancer sites were the prostate 267(16.00%), bladder 160(9.60%), skin 138(8.20%) nasopharynx 87(5.2%), lymph node 85(5.10%) and rectum 61(3.60%) while in females, the most common sites were the breast 731(731%), cervix 302(13.40%), lymph node 163(7.20%), ovary 110(4.90%), skin 87(3.80%) and endometrial 61(2.70%).

Conclusion: There is significant difference in the pattern of cancer distribution amongst males and females in Sokoto and the cancer burden is highest in young to middle aged adults. The breast, prostate, lymph node, skin and bladder cancers were the most frequent in our setting. This study provides useful Information, a baseline data on cancer distribution in our environment and also serves as a guide for health intervention measures and future research.

10-15
4

Title : Experimental Investigation on Soil Stabilisation Using Rubber Crumbs on Expansive Soil

Authors : Ms.L.Kokila, G.Bhavithra, V.Hemapriya, C.Iniya, P.Madhunigga

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To withstand the load soil is the basic foundation for the structure. Weak in the strength, high degree of expansion and contraction due to the presence of montmorilonite minerals causes differential settlement in a structure which leads to failure in the black cotton soil. To increase the engineering properties and to make it suitable for the construction purpose it is required to stabilize the soil. It can be done by various methods such as by using lime, cement, textile effluent, plastic, etc.

In this study the stabilization is carried out by using increasing percentage of rubber crumbs along with lime under suitable test. The main objective is to increase the CBR value.

16-19
5

Title : Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Road Network of Selected Major Routes in Port Harcourt City, Nigeria

Authors : Gladys Chineze Emenike, Precious Ibezi

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The study evaluated the spatio-temporal analysis of road network of selected major routes namely Choba-Rumuola-Eleme Junction route and Choba-Rumuokoro-Eleme Junction route. The use of counting method was employed to estimate the vehicular movement (inflow and outflow). The impedances on the two roads were recorded and mapped using Global Positioning Systems. Stopwatch was used to record the time taken in each of the impedance location. Findings revealed that the total vehicular inflow along Choba-Rumuola-Eleme Junction route was highest on Wednesdays with 1159 vehicles and least on Sundays with 677 vehicles. The outflow was least on Sundays and highest on Mondays with 715 and 1224 vehicles respectively. Furthermore, the total inflow was highest in the evening (2622 vehicles) and the least was observed in the afternoon (1826 vehicles). The total vehicles plying Choba-Rumuola-Eleme Junction route were 13786 vehicles while along Choba-Rumuokoro-Eleme Junction route were 6545. Time lost during the vehicular inflow along Choba-Rumuola-Eleme Junction route was highest at Rumuokwuta Junction (6708.6s) while along Choba-Rumuokoro-Eleme Junction route, time lost was highest at Rumuokoro Roundabout (5210.4s). The total time lost along Choba-Rumuola-Eleme Junction route was higher (42105.21s) than that of Choba-Rumuokoro-Eleme Junction route (25233.0s) whereby cars were the highest (>70%) type of vehicles recorded along the two routes. The study recommended among others that motorist should try to avoid both Rumuokoro Roundabout and Rumuokwuta Junction when plying these roads. 

20-23
6

Title : Assessment of Port‚s Security and Performance in Port Harcourt Seaports Complex, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria (2005-2015)

Authors : Gladys Chineze Emenike, Mene Frank Baridoma

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The study assessed the port’s security and performance in Port Harcourt Seaports Complex, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. The study made use of 291 copies of structured questionnaire administered to the staff of the Nigeria Ports Authority (NPA), BUA Ports and Terminals Ltd, Port Harcourt and terminal operators/stevedores and Dock workers in Port Harcourt Port Complex using a simple random sampling technique. Descriptive statistics in form of frequency and percentages were used to analyze the data. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between port security and port performance. Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 was used for the data analysis. Findings revealed that among the security facilities, fire alarm system, gun boat, wall mounted motion sensor biometric time attendance and security alarms were adequately available while security gadgets like spy camera face cap, portable hand held security, belt buckle spy camera, biro button, and wristwatch camera were adequately available at the Port Harcourt Seaport Complex. Types of port insecurity included burglary and armed robbery (27.0%) smuggling activities (28.0%), sea piracy (8.0%) and touting (93%). Cargo throughput was highest 2011 (12.1%) and least in 2015 (4.6%) while the ship turnaround time for Port Harcourt Seaport was highest in 2011 (12.46 days) and the least was recorded in 2009 (8.03 days). Cargo throughput, ship turnaround time, berth occupancy rate and tonnage per ship jointly contributed 32.4% to port security in Port Harcourt Port Complex; though no significant influence of port security on port performance (t=0.757; p=0.483). The study therefore recommended among others that the international ship and port facility security code (ISPS) should be adequately implemented more both at the terminals and jetties.

24-28
7

Title : A Review of Iran‘s Nuclear Negotiations with the E3 + 3 (2003-2015)

Authors : Javad Nikmoeen

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Iran nuclear activities started from 1950. The first country that encouraged Iran to achieve the nuclear program and transferred this technology to Iran was USA while this country is today the first country that disagree Iran nuclear activities. Before occurrence of Islamic Republic of Iran revolution, west and specially USA, French and Germany were serious to cooperate Iran in this regard due to high benefits and communism influence possibility but after the revolution and independent policies of Iran, USA and some European countries disagreed Iran nuclear activities and Iran was accused to perform activity in the nuclear weapons field. 
Iran always stated that its aim from producing and developing nuclear research is using nuclear energy peacefully. No evidence has been found in inspections of atomic international energy agency indicating Iran's decision to produce nuclear weapon. 
Judges council of agency has accused Iran to have nuclear weapon in their issued resolutions since Iran has not given some information of nuclear sites of Natanz and Arak and they requested Iran to stop its activities in uranium enrichment and heavy water reactor in Arak center. However, Iran did not obey their request and decided to use its NPT right. This was reported to the Security Council and this council imposed heavy sanctions to Iran.This topic from 2003 to 2015 led to the longest political international negotiations in International Relations between Iran and the E3 + 3 and Finally July 14, 2015 in Vienna, Austria they managed to achieve a comprehensive and final agreement on the future of Iran's nuclear program. Federica Mogherini, Europe Union foreign policy chief and Mohammad Javad Zarif, Iran's foreign minister in a formal meeting in Vienna in front of the media by reading a statement in English and Farsi announced that a final agreement on Iran's nuclear program have been achieved.In this study we have an overview of the negotiations.

29-33
8

Title : The Suitability of Models to Prefigure Organic Functions and to Avoid Item Dispersion of a Variable Indexing on Height Rather than BSA Shown by Comparing Two Studies

Authors : Giancarlo Ruggieri

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A previous study based on theoretical data on the glomerular filtration rate evaluated the effect of different indexations on the distribution of the indexed values versus the distribution of the non-indexed values; this study showed that the lowest dispersion of values was due to indexation based on height. Consequently, we planned to confirm these theoretical results by comparing them to a parallel study based on the values of the clearance of creatinine in a real population of patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. This study showed a very strong correlation between the results of the theoretical study and the study of the real population, thus demonstrating the suitability of this preliminary approach for research using theoretical models to preview and confirm the results of a study using a real population. 

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9

Title : The Effects of School Facilities on Internal Efficiency: The Case of Selected Bilingual Secondary Schools in Yaounde Centre

Authors : Dr. Emmanuel NDJEBAKAL SOUCK, Mr. Genevarius NJI

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This study sets out to study the relationship that exists between school facilities and internal efficiency in Government Bilingual Secondary Schools in Yaounde centre. Both the quantitative and the qualitative approaches were used to collect and analyse data. In the quantitative approach, questionnaires were used while in the qualitative approach, an observation guide was elaborated. The simple random sampling and the purposeful sampling techniques were used to select 543 teachers from 10 Government Bilingual Secondary Schools (GBSS). Spearman correlation formula was used to determine the relationship between the variables under study and a correlation index of 0.67 was obtained with level of significance of 0.00< 0.05 This overwhelmingly reveals that school facilities significantly influence the internal efficiency of secondary schools in Yaounde Centre. Some recommendations were made to education stake holders.

41-48
10

Title : Review On: Approaches for Excluding Compromised Node by Evaluating Trust in Wireless Sensor Network

Authors : Ravneet Kaur, Priyanka Mehta

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This paper analyse the enhancements in excluding compromised nodes using AES key encryption sign for identification in wireless sensor network. The wireless sensor networks (WSN) are specialized transducers with spatially dispersed and dedicated autonomous sensor nodes for identifying, monitoring and recording the physical and environmental conditions at different locations. Different trust systems have been proposed to reduce the effect of routing attacks, but most of them could not determine the malicious node effectively and some of them suffer from the attacks on the system. In this paper, we propose a security of wireless sensor network by excluding the black node and compromised  nodes. using authorization and encryption and exclude compromised node by evaluating the trust factor in wireless sensor network. The main Emphasis of our research is on to check the trust factor of node from centralized server i.e. Cluster head which control the whole network to prevent the problem of black node.

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11

Title : Evaluating The Frequency of The Published Study Designs in The Field of Safety Promotion And Injury Prevention During The Last Three Decades (1985-2015)

Authors : Hajar Nazari Kangavari, Ali Habibi, Siamak Sabour

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Background: Study design is classified generally into two categories: observational and Interventional. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of the published study designs in the fields of safety promotion and injury prevention regarding to the continents during the last three decades.

 

METHODS:  In this review article, all published papers in Pubmed from 1984 to 2015 in the field of safety promotion and injury prevention were studied.We used the following keywords for our search: "Road traffic","burning","drowning","fall"and"violence".The total number of articles in this field were 115 manuscripts.

Results: We showed that the most published papers in this field, were conducted in America. About 67% of all studies and 78% of all intervention studies have been conducted in the continent of America and Europe. Asia shared 9% of intervention studies and Iran shared 3.6% of the studies which have been conducted in this area.

Conclusion: Considering the current situation in developed compared to developing countries, if one of the goals of the national health system to be health promotion in the society, the current status in terms of study design that are running, cannot results in safety in this field.

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12

Title : Accuracy and Precision in Medical Researches;Common Mistakes and Misinterpretations

Authors : Siamak Sabour, Ommolbanin Abbasnezhad, Samaneh Mozaffarian, Hajar Nazari Kangavari

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Background: When we use a single test in clinical care, for appropriate management of patients and correct diagnosis in clinical care the validity and reliability of that single test is important. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the statistical issues about validity and reliability used in medical papers focusing on common mistakes and misinterpretations.

 

METHODS:  The articles about validity and reliability published in PubMed in 2012- 2015, were searched using MESH term. 200 most relevant papers with our topic were reviewed for assessing the correctness of methodology and statistical tests used to assess validity and reliability.  

Results: our study showed that the clinical researchers make many mistakes in assessing of validity and reliability of a single test. In more than half of the papers the methodology and statistical tests used for evaluating of validity and reliability of a single test were incorrect or incomplete.

Conclusion: In analysis of validity and reliability of a test in published papers, there are many mistakes and clinical researchers need to gain more knowledge about that.    

58-60
13

Title : Ultrasound Detection of Pneumothorax

Authors : Atanas Dimitrov Hilendarov, Antonia Ivanova Nedeva, Kichka Georgieva Velkova

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Introduction Lung sonography has rapidly emerged as a reliable technique in the evaluation of various thoracic diseases. Accurate diagnosis of a pneumothorax in the management of a critical patient can prevent the life-threatening situation. The aim. This article offers our experience of the use of thoracic ultrasound in the diagnosis of a pneumothorax, reviews the proper techniques used, and highlights its clinical utility. Materials and Methods The study study was carried out between June 2015 and September 2016 year. Lung sonography was performed on 110 patients -89 at the Emergency Department and 21 at the betside due to unstability of the patient. The probe is placed in a sagittal position on the anterior chest wall at about the second intercostal space, in the mid-clavicular line. During ultrasonography, the patient is sitting with arms elevated and the hand positioned behind the neck. A 3.5 MHz linear array transducer is used in all the cases and in some cases a straight linear array high frequency probe (5–13 MHz).Results Sixty-five/71.5%/ of all 110 patients, witch can be divided into two broad categories: traumatic  in 59 cases (including iatrogenic) or 6 atraumatic, are with sonographic signs of  pneumothorax. The patients with confirmed pneumothorax are presented with one or more ultrasound signs- in 45 patients -absence of  lung sliding, in 32 - ‘barcode’ often called the ‘stratosphere sign’, in 13- loss of ‘comet-tail artifacts’, in 34- ‘A-lines’, 14 with ‘lung-point sign’, and in 54 the ‘power slide’ with loss of ‘lung pulse’. 35 of the patients are treated by VATS complete pleurectomy and 5 patients submitted to VATS pleural abrasion. Conclusions  Thoracic sonography for the detection of pneumothorax has become a well-established modality in the acute care setting. It is indispensible in the blunt or penetrating chest trauma patient, where the identification of a pneumothorax can prevent life-threatening consequences.

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14

Title : The Relationship between Talent Management with Performance Management in Selected Public Higher Learning Institutions

Authors : Kamal M.Y., Lukman Z.M.

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Higher Learning Institutions (HLIs) in abroad have adopted Talent Management (TM) in the managerial system which leads to Performance Management (PM) in the organization has gone up. In correlation to that, Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE) has taken a proactive action to introduce TM in public HLIs in Malaysia. In hoping to see the PM of public HLIs to go higher, strategies has been created and developed to ensure the level of public HLIs is parallel with those in abroad. Therefore, this research has been conducted to examine the relationship between TM and PM in selected public HLIs. Quantitative method has been used in order to collect a primary data of this research with 714 respondents have been approached to answer a questionnaire in selected public HLIs which are Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI) and Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM). Information obtained from the descriptive survey has been analyzed by using IBM Statistical Packages Social Sciences (SPSS). Results showed that the relationship between TM and PM in three selected public HLIs were in moderate level whereby USM scored higher correlation as compared to other two public HLIs. As a conclusion, the result of this research will be a benchmark to other public HLIs in Malaysia to strengthen up their strategies in TM in order to boost up the organization. Meanwhile, in three selected public HLIs need to come up with better implementation of TM in order to ensure the relationship of TM and PM is highly interrelated. 

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