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Volume 4 Issue 3

S.No. Title & Authors Page No View
1

Title : Nuclear Factor-Kappa B Expression and Acyl-Ghrelin in Egyptian Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver

Authors : Mona El-Shafie , Heba Allam, Layla El-Shall, Mohamed Abdel-Samiee, El-Sayed Ibrahim, Fatma Khalaf ,Salwa Ali

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BACKGROUND: Ghrelin is a gut hormone with various functions including energy metabolism and inflammation inhibition.Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) participates in the initiation and the progression of inflammation, particularly, the cardiovascular and adipose tissue inflammation. To date the combined role of Ghrelin and NF-κB in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a matter of debate. AIM:To investigate whether acyl ghrelin level and NF-κB could interplay a role in lipid metabolism and inflammatory injury in NAFLD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ninety three adult participates were included in the study, 30 patients had proved nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and 38 patients had simple steatosis, as well 25 healthy subjects, matched for age, gender and Body mass index (BMI) to the patients were included in the study as a healthy control group. Full history and clinical examination, abdominal ultrasonography and liver biopsy were done when indicated. Liver function tests, lipid profile, blood sugar, insulin and C- peptide, fasting insulin, and plasma acyl ghrelin concentrations were measured. Nuclear NF-kB mRNA expression was measured by quantitative RT-PCR. RESULTS: Fasting insulin, insulin C-peptide, HOMA-IR, AST, ALT and g-GT were significantly increased and HDL-C was significantly decreased in NAFLD group compared to control group. In addition, a significant increase in ALT, g-GT, fasting insulin, insulin C peptide and HOMA-IR were detected in the NASH group compared to group of simple steatosis.

The plasma levels of Acyl-ghrelin was significantly decreased in NAFLD groups compared to normal control group, the lowest level was detected in NASH group as compared to group of simple steatosis. The expression of NF-kB mRNA was significantly increased in NAFLD groups compared to normal control group and its level was significantly increased in NASH compared to simple steatosis. The NF-kB mRNA was positively

correlated with BMI, HOMA-IR, ALT, fasting insulin, insulin C-peptide and liver histopathology and acyl-ghrelin was inversely correlated with BMI, HOMR-IR, ALT, fasting insulin, insulin C peptide and liver histopathology. Both were significantly correlated with HDL-C. CONCLUSION: Acyl ghrelin attenuated NAFLD-induced liver injury through down regulation of NF-κB and they are associated with disease progression. Further large scale studies are recommended to consider ghrelin as promising drug for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD.

01-07
2

Title : Field Emission Cathodes Based on Structured Carbon Nanotube Arrays

Authors : Z. Cheng, L. Sun, Z. Y. Li, P. Serbun, N. Kargin, V. Labunov, B. Shulitski, I. Kashko, D.Grapov, G.Gorokh

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Field emission properties of the structured carbon nanotube cathodes were investigated by field emission scanning  microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and integral field emission measurements with luminescence screen. The carbon nanotube arrays were synthesized by the atmospheric pressure floating catalyst chemical vapour deposition method under the high temperature pyrolysis of ferrocene/xylene solution. Varying arrays of carbon nanotube columns and blocks were fabricated on Si, SiO2 and porous anodic alumina substrates.  Well-aligned field emission from nearly 100% of the patches at electric field <10 V/µm in direct current and pulsed mode integrally and locally was observed. High current capabilities up to mA currents for structured carbon nanotube cathodes were achieved. Integral field emission measurements with luminescence screen and processing under N2 and O2 exposures of up to 3×10−5 mbar demonstrated homogeneous current distribution and long-term stability of the structured carbon nanotube cathodes. 

08-27
3

Title : The Conventions Concerning Weapons of Mass Destruction and the Extent of Their Application to the Depleted Uranium Weapon

Authors : Aqila Hadi Issa, Harlida Abdul Wahab, Nor Anita Abdullah

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In view of the features and the dangerous effects of weapons of mass destruction,   these weapons have been organized under international conventions. Some of these weapons have been internationally banned such as chemical and biological weapons. Others have been restricted like the nuclear weapons. Depleted uranium, which defined as a secondary result of uranium mining in nuclear reactors, have the same characteristics and effects of the latter weapons, but they have not been covered by any international convention so far. This constitutes a shortage in the international legislation requiring a treatment. This paper will be conducted through doctrinal approach; data will be collected through secondary source by examining the contribution of scholars in the field of law. The current research will try to clarify the possibility of application of conventions on weapons of mass destruction with respect to depleted uranium weapons

28-32
4

Title : Analysis and Performance Evaluation of Microstrip Patch Antenna for X- Band Applications

Authors : Meenakshi Dular, Ira Joshi

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In this paper, a design of Microstrip Patch Antenna for X- Band applications is proposed. The input impedance of the antenna is 50Ω. The Proposed antenna resonates at 10.62 GHz having return loss value of -20.36dB. The total bandwidth of the proposed patch antenna is1.88GHz. The antenna is fed by a micro strip feed. The Rogers RT/ Duroid 5880 (tm) is used as a substrate, and antenna dimensions of 30mm x 25mm in X and Y directions and having a thickness of 1.6mm. The results are simulated by using Ansoft HFSS software. Also gain, directivity and bandwidth of the proposed antenna are studied.

33-35
5

Title : Bio Cementation: A Novel Technique and Approach Towards Sustainable Material

Authors : Sweety Parmar , Darshan Marjadi

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A large number of human activities and natural process creates disturbance in concrete structures that ultimately reduces the service life of a structure. The cement industry produces about 5% of the global anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Calcium carbonate is one of the most common minerals widespread on earth. Microbial induced carbonate precipitation is a process by which living organisms produces inorganic solids. Bacteria are incredibly diverse and abundant and many bacterial species contribute to the precipitation of mineral carbonates in various natural environments. Production occurs in an alkaline environment and which leads to calcite precipitation. The hydrolysis of urea by the enzyme urease is unique in that it is one of the few biologically occurring reactions that can generate carbonates. The ubiquity and importance of microbes in inducing calcite precipitation make “Bio cement” a most important metabolic product of Biomineralization which can remediate and restore such structure. Feasibility studies on the use of sludge to produce cement as a means of ultimate sludge disposal have been initiated. 

36-41
6

Title : Some Remarks About the Graeae (Graiai)

Authors : Juan S. Gomez-Jeria

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The center of the present work is the encounter of the Indo-European hero Perseus with the Graeae. Some comments about the end of the Bronze Age are offered together with the thesis that Perseus was a real human being. A description of the Graeae, based on early Greek texts and pictorial representations, is presented. Several new questions about these enigmatic figures are presented. Who had this idea first? Why are they called “horror", "waster of cities, “alarm”? Why they shared one eye and one tooth?  Why were they only two at the beginning? Why does their number increase to three? Why they were forced to release information making both temporarily blind at the same time? Some provisory answers are provided and discussed.

42-46
7

Title : New Inequalities Associated with the Euler-Mascheroni Constant

Authors : Jenica Cringanu

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In this paper we propose new sequence approximating the Euler-Mascheroni constant which converge faster towards its limit and we establish better bounds in inequalities for the Euler constant.

47-49
8

Title : Minimizing the Total Cost in the Out Patient Department (OPD) of a Multispecialty Hospital

Authors : A. Nellai Murugan, S.Vijayakumari Saratha

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Waiting lines are experienced in out daily activities. Waiting in line or queue causes inconvenience to individuals (Patients) and economic costs to firms and organizations. Providing too much service capacity to operate a system involves excessive cost. But not providing enough service capacity results in excessive waiting time and cost. In this study the queuing characteristics at the specialist clinic was analysed using a multiserver queuing model and the waiting and service costs determined with a view to determining the optimal service level. This model can also be used by decision and other policy makers to solve other multi-server queuing problems. 

50-53
9

Title : Diurnal and Seasonal Variations in Carbon Dioxide Emissions in a Solid Waste Management Facility, Akure, Nigeria

Authors : O.O Elemile, M.K.C Sridhar, A.O Coker

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Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions through decomposition and waste life-cycle processes. The available literature is scanty on fluctuations of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from MSW facilities especially in tropical developing countries like Nigeria. This study monitored seasonal variations in the CO2 levels emitted at an open dump in the solid wastes management facility, Akure. For a year, wastes brought to the MSW facility from three major sources, viz: markets, residences and other non-specific sources dumped on roadside were assessed for their physical composition and the amount of waste generated. Air CO2 levels were monitored at seven critical locations Laboratory (L), Organic Fertilizer (OF), Plastic Recycling (PR), Overhead Tank (OT), Sorting Area (SA), Gatehouse (GH) and Outside(O) every day for a week at 9.00am, 12.00 noon and 2.00pm  , during the dry and rainy seasons using a P-Sense Plus CO2 meter AZ-7755 (USA) and computed. Results indicate that the total wastes generated (paper) from all the sources were 5,834,005.0+ 5,079633.8 (wet season) and 4,266,871.0+3,745,337.8 kg (dry season), respectively. There were no significant differences in the carbon dioxide levels in the morning: 506.9 + 71.1 and 537.0 + 91.8 ppm; 450.6 + 28.4 and 456.0 + 10.8 ppm; 442.6+ 19.4 and 448.0 + 10.4ppm for the L, SA and GH; in the noon: 415.0 + 15.9  and 458.5 + 44.1ppm; 427.3 +  20.5 and 443.5 +  10.4 ppm and 425.6 + 14.3 and 438.0 +  0.12 ppm for PR, OT and GH and the afternoon: 434.3 + 45.3 and 438.0 + 7.2 ppm for GH only in the wet and dry seasons respectively. The atmospheric CO2 data in the study area showed clear seasonal and diurnal variations as evident in values of 438.00 to 630.0 ppm in the dry season and 407.3 and 506.9 ppm for wet season.   These values were above the regulatory limit of 400.00 ppm specified by the National guideline values. The study suggested periodic monitoring of air carbon dioxide levels keeping in mind the seasonal variations. 

54-60
10

Title : ADHD Awareness Among Medical Students

Authors : Hebah F Qashqari, Abdulaziz O Alsulami, Eman K Kamal, Mohammed M.S. Jan

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Background: Early recognition of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is needed to prevent its psychosocial and educational consequences. We aimed to study ADHD awareness among medical students and identify correlating and contributing factors to their lack of knowledge.

Methods:  A cross sectional study included 5th year medical students attending their pediatric rotation from September 15, 2012 until June 15, 2013 at King Abdulaziz University hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A structured 25-item questionnaire was designed to examine their demographics, educational experience, and awareness questions about ADHD.

Results: Of 120 approached students, 111 were included with ages ranging from 20-29 years (mean 22) and 69% being females. Most students 69 (62%) were enrolled during their pediatric rotation and 97 (87%) already completed their psychiatry course. Although most students (67%) recognized ADHD, only 13 (12%) categorized their level of knowledge as very good or excellent. Only 24% correctly recognized ADHD subtypes and 58% did not know what is the initial required management step. Only 19 students (17%) correctly recognized all ADHD features based on the DSM IV criteria with a mean correct score of 69% (standard deviation 14). No correlations were found with their age, gender, completing their pediatric/ psychiatry rotation, or specialty interests.

Conclusions: Medical student’s level of knowledge about ADHD needs improvement. This has to be corrected in order to improve early recognition and intervention. Increased ADHD education and exposure during pediatric/neuroscience modules are needed in our region.

61-64
11

Title : Research and Practice on Virtual Simulation Experiment Teaching System of Spatial Information and Digital Technique

Authors : Jiangfan Feng, Yuanyuan Liu

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In the traditional experimental mode, students must carry out the experiment at the designated time and place and the laboratory also need to constantly update the experimental equipment to meet the requirements of the development of the discipline. Virtual simulation teaching system is characterized by openness and extendibility, which makes the teachers and students do experiments at any time and place as long as they can access the virtual simulation platform on one hand. On the other hand, in the use procedure, it can quickly reproduce and provide a new virtual device. The experimenter can also add the corresponding virtual devices on the platform according to their own needs. This paper puts forward suggestions and practice on virtual simulation experiment teaching system of spatial information and digital technique, an effective supplement to the traditional experiment teaching, which solve the cooperative work of virtual simulation experiment teaching system and the existing experimental teaching system and is conducive to the building of experimental practice teaching system “ To be real rather than virtual with the combination of the real and the virtual and mutual supplement”.

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12

Title : The Observed Rotation of the Galaxies Without the Need of Dark Matter

Authors : Jacob Schaf

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The goal of the present work is showing that the new theory of gravitation, conceived within the context of the Higgs theory and perfectly corroborated by recent experimental observations, predicts, with incredible details, the observed rotation of the galaxies without the need of dark matter. The non-Keplerian rotation of the galaxies is actually one of the most serious impasses of the current theories of space and gravitation. From the viewpoint of these theories, galaxies rotate much too fast to be hold together by the gravitational force and or the spacetime curvature, generated by the content and distribution of their visible matter. In order to preserve these theories, a huge amount of very exotic dark matter is usually postulated. 

68-74
13

Title : Characterization of Volatiles Compounds Emitted from Freeze-dried Lactobacillus plantarum CWBI-B1419 During Storage

Authors : Ibourahema Coulibaly, Elisee Kporou Kouassi, Clement Kouassi Kouassi, Daouda Kone

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The powder of freeze-dried Lactobacillus plantarum CWBI-B1419 was analyzed at three stages during storage. The water content, the rate of viable bacteria were monitored and the volatiles compounds were extracted from the powders by the technic of sampling of the dynamic headspace and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The analysis revealed 109 volatiles compounds identified aldehydes, alcohols, alkenes, alkanes, esters, ketones and compounds derived from amino acids such as the predominates groups. Ten volatiles were selected according to their high percentage of peak areas. Seven of these volatils were analyzed by following their evolution during storage. Among these compounds we noticed a decreased of ethanoic acid and cyclotetrasiloxane octamethyl unlike acetic acid, propionic acid, 2-methyl-, butanoic acid and 3-methylbutanoic with increasing percentages of significantly (p <0.1) during 90 days of storage. The contents of volatiles from Lactobacillus plantarum CWBI-B1419 is a function of the storage period and also the quatntité polyunsaturated fatty acids. Despite the high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, catabolism of amino acids and synthesis of esters led to important changes in the composition of volatile products of lactic acid bacteria from oxidation reactions of lipids.

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