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Volume 3 Issue 6

S.No. Title & Authors Page No View
1

Title : Humanization of Care Ethical and Social in Clinical-Care

Authors : Graziano Giorgio Maria Paolo, Antonino Graziano, Giovanni Castelli ,Antonio Di cataldo

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Even primitive people practiced medicine with a religious attitude and blamed supernatural forces to all those diseases that exceeded the experience and thought; the medical report (shaman) - sick could be defined as the "paradigm of the sorcerer." This relational mode started from the assumption that the disease was due to recognizable supernatural factors and therapy, based on the recognition of these factors, was based on precise measures to counter them. An exemplary people in ancient times was that of Egypt, which combines medicine, religion and magic through the identification of therapeutic formulas and magical performances. The priest or Sunu (the one who has compassion) enjoyed esteem as a man endowed with divine and supernatural powers and able to appease the wrath of the gods  When the individual doctor-patient relationship is transformed in time, at best it takes place an evolution from dependency to partnership; This change is often the result of work of the doctor who encourages the patient to greater self-sufficiency, to a more mature ability to take responsibility for their own health and to a careful use of resources. Gradually cohere a model of relationship between doctor and patient that sees respected the person as a subject in law to make choices, to have personal points of view and take action on the basis of his beliefs; good working alliance that results, creates a situation of mutual comfort and promotes mutual understanding and acceptance as well as attention to social responsibility. The difficulty of this perspective is to maintain a balance between the conflicting needs of the patient that one part seeks autonomy and the other support and containment. The clinical himself is not free from contradictions: on one side is willing to a total delegation of responsibility, but the other is alarmed by the loss of authority that goes with it I remain ever present Origen: Religious people resort to doctors as collaborators of God, knowing that he has given human beings, like all other sciences, as well as medical science, and that it was he who ordered the grasses sprout from the earth; However, these people also know that the art of the doctors nothing can if God does not want, but so can what he wants. 

01-08
2

Title : Are Candidate Coaches Ready for Coaching? Coaching Efficacy of Candidate Coaches

Authors : Mustafa Karahan

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Increasing the efficacy of candidate coaches is one of the main objectives of coaching education programs. The purpose of the present study is to determine coaching efficacy of candidate coaches. Adopting the survey design a total of 507 candidate coaches participated to the study. The study used the Coaching Efficacy Scale as data collection tool. The data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, independent sample t test, and multiple regressions analyzes. In the study it has found that candidate coaches had high level coaching efficacy. In the comparison of gender and type of sports variable between coaching efficacy it has not found any significant differences. However it has found that significant differences between coaching experiences. In another result which was obtained from the study while coaching experience was an important predictor of all the dimensions of coaching efficacy, gender and sport type were not.

09-14
3

Title : Production and Reproduction Parameters Analysis of N’Dama Cattle Breed in the Dairy Station of Yamoussoukro (SLY), in the Savannah Zone, in Cote d’Ivoire

Authors : N Goran K. Edouard, Zakpa L. Gbodjo,Dago D. Noel, Lallie Hermane Desire M.N, Sokouri Didier Paulin, Doumbia Ladji

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The reproductions and productions of the N’Dama breed were analyzed on the basis of anucleus breeding of the dairy station of Yamoussoukro in Côte d’Ivoire.Data collections were done from 2010 to 2015. The first calving age varied from 20 to 65 months for an average of33.20 ± 5.64 months. The interval between calving and the calving – fertilizing insemination of the N’Dama cow varied from 300 to 822 days and from 67 to 233 days for respective averages of 474.10±147.81 days and 166.4 days. On average, the fertility rates in free mating (86.79 %) and in artificial insemination(19.43%) respectively varied from86.09 to 87.8% and from9.40 to 26.50%.The gravidity duration was on average284.25±11.14 days for variation from244 to 358 days. For the birth weight, it was estimated on average to 17 kg for females and to 19 for males. The average weight of the differentage bracket from 1 to 6 ; 7 to12 and 19 from 24 months were respectively 89.24 ±17.17 kg, 133.67±20.95 kg and 197.46 ± 39.72 kg for the females  and 96.57 ±16.56 kg, 145.8 ±33.76 and 244.73 ±55.94 kg for the males. 

15-20
4

Title : The Role of the Characteristic Load Impedance in Passive Ladder Networks: Again the Presence of the Fibonacci Sequence

Authors : R. Lojacono, C. Falconi1, G.Ferri, E. Lo Castro, M.Salmeri, A. Mencattini, M.Santonic, G.Pennazza, A. D Amico

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This paper deals with an analysis of the different behaviors existing between ladder networks (LN) terminated and not terminated by the characteristic impedance Z0. The main purpose of this work is to find, in both cases, links with the golden ratio  and, as a consequence, with Fibonacci numbers.

Results of some simulations related to the determination of impedances, node voltages and branch currents are given in order to underline approximation effects on the node voltages and branch currents related to both the presence and absence of Z0.This study has been firstly applied to R-R ladder networks but it is here extended to consider other kinds of LNs, having other types of single cells such as C-C ; L-L whose characteristic impedances have also been determined.

Double resistive LN have also been investigated for which impedances in any cell, currents in any branch and voltages in any node have been determined  in the two cases of presence and absence of the characteristic impedance and with different ratio between longitudinal and transversal impedances. This study has another not less relevant aim: find one of the possible  platform for the modelization of biosystems like DNA and RNA, because these structures even if much more complex look like a LN

21-29
5

Title : Assessing Extent to which Co-operative Societies Comply with the International Co-operative Alliance Standards - A Case of Mpika District in Zambia

Authors : Reagan Ntalasha

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this paper assesses the extent to which co-operative societies complied with the International Co-operatives Alliance (ICA) standards using a comparative approach between the category of enterprising and non-enterprising cooperatives in Mpika district. The national criterion of categorizing cooperative enterprises does not factor in the ICA standards. Specific objectives were to determine the extent to which co-operatives complied with the ICA principles in 2015; voluntary and open membership, democratic member control, member economic participation, autonomy and independence, education, training and information, cooperation among cooperatives and concern for the community. 75 registered co-operatives were selected for the study. Data collection was achieved through questionnaires, interviews, and study of documentary material from ICA reports and academic works. Data summary was presented on ICA principles score sheet. Analysis was done using the chi-square test, liquidity ratio and surplus determination. Findings show that 100% of cooperatives from both categories were non-compliant with ICA principle on cooperative independence and this compromised adherence with other principles. The study concludes that there is no significant difference between the enterprise category of cooperatives and the compliance with ICA principles on all the 7 principles. The conclusion implies that cooperatives are similar in compliance and abrogation of the ICA standards regardless of their category of enterprise. The Zambian situation has been exposed as one that has co-operatives that operate in accordance to two demanding objectives; the successive governments’ objective and the ICA objective though the former has a larger influence in the operation of co-operatives. In order to have co-operatives that would comply in totality with ICA standards, the study’s main recommendation is to let ICA take a key role in regulating co-operatives worldwide.

30-37
6

Title : Role of Moringa oleifera Leaves Extract Against Cadmium in Mice

Authors : Layla Safar AL Otaibi

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The present work was designed to study the possible protective effect of M. oleifera Lam. leaves extract against the toxicity of cadmium acetates on serum biochemical parameters and histology of liver and kidney in rats. On studying the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were increased after treatment with M. oleifera, cadmium when compared with control group. The levels of the enzymes AST, ALT and ALP activities were increased after administration of cadmium and then decreased approximately to the control level when administering leaves extract of M. oleifera to rats administered cadmium. The results of the histopathological examination, after administration of cadmium in the present study revealed some changes in the hepatocytes like cytoplasmic vacuolation with pyknotic nuclei. In some cells, there were aggregation of chromatin materials inside nuclear envelope and some cells showed degeneration and necrosis. Also, the central vein appeared engorged with blood, hepatocytes appear to be swollen, dilatation and congestion of central vein, Kupffer cell hyperplasia, distorted ‘lobular’ architecture of liver parenchyma also seen. Histopathological studies in the liver of rats treated with cadmium clearly indicated an extensive liver parenchymal damage like swollen hepatocytes, congested and dilated central vein and Kupffer cell hyperplasia. Examination of kidney in rats treated with cadmium, showed aggregation of hemolytic blood cells in between tubules, and beginning of cellular damage that include pyknosis of some nuclei. Also, there was congestion in some blood vessels, which appeared engorged with blood cells. In some sections found cytoplasmic vacuolation and appearance of tubular cast, and some tubules showed necrotic cells with pyknotic nuclei. In some tubules, there were swollen cells, which appeared with cytoplasmic vacuolation.Histological examination of kidneys of rats received lead showed severe changes in proximal and distal convoluted tubules and collecting tubules, thick limb of Henle’s loop which represented by appearance of vacuolation of the cells, and there were necrotic cells with pyknotic nuclei. Blood vessel in between the tubules and the loops of Henle appeared engorged with blood and appearance of many necrotic cells. There was a significant improvement in the histopathology of the liver and kidney in rats treated with M. oleifera + cadmium . Hepatocytes appear to be little swollen, mild distortion of ‘Lobular’ architecture of liver parenchyma, mild widening of sinusoidal spaces observed in M. oleifera + cadmium treated group. Hence, it could be concluded that cadmium is toxic heavy metals, whichaffects the serum biochemical profile and causes degenerative histopathological changes in rat liver and kidney. Simultaneous treatment with leaves extracts of M. oleifera partially improved the hepatocellular damages induced by cadmium. 

38-44
7

Title : Particular Features of Neonatal Seizures Populational Study

Authors : Raluca Maria Costea, Gabriela Adriana Visa, George Constantin Maniu, Mihai Bogdan Neamtu

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The characteristic features of the neonatal seizures is determined by the anatomical and physiological peculiarities of the human brain in the perinatal period. Current data point towards an excessive depolarization as the underlying mechanism of neonatal seizures. We conducted a retrospective population-based study whose objective was to identify the etiologic factors, predisposing and prognostic predictors of neonatal seizures, by recording epidemiological data, data regarding antenatal or perinatal pathology, clinical aspects of neonatal seizures, neurological syndrome severity, and complications during the follow-up. 206 children were enrolled in the study, all with neonatal seizures in their medical records and born in the  Sibiu, Medias and Cisnădie Maternity Hospitals between January 1995 and December 2005. The incidence of neonatal seizures was double in males. The postmature male newborns showed a significantly higher birth weight than the female newborns. Although the boys presented an early onset seizure, the average seizure duration was lower. The hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, intracerebral hemorrhage, and symptomatic infections are the primary etiological factors for girls and the metabolic context, for boys. The female gender was associated with increased rates of mortality and morbidity compared to male gender. In the case of late complications, the mental retardation predominates in female gender and the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in male gender .  

45-50
8

Title : Analysis of Remanufacturing System with Server Vacation

Authors : H. KlvancAksoy

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Product recovery management deals with the collection of used and discarded products and explores the opportunities to remanufacture the products, reuse the components or recycle the materials. Remanufacturing operations involved with highly uncertain recovery rate of used products and parts that complicate the planning and control of the process. Also, recovery operations tend to be labor intensive that lead to significant variability in the processing times at various shop floor operations. To reduce the effect of these uncertainties we need to employ server operation policy. This paper considers the performance of the remanufacturing system with finite buffers and random time-span server vacations. The term server vacation may be used to cases where the server leaves the primary queuing system to work on an external workload for a random duration every time the server becomes idle. We model the remanufacturing system as an open queuing network and use the decomposition principle and expansion methodology to analyze it.

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9

Title : Health Seeking Behavior of the Mothers Residing in Slums of Cities of Rajasthan: With Special Reference to Antenatal Care Services

Authors : Prof. (Dr.) Laxmi Thakur, Mr. Arvind Singhal

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There is strong relationship amongst the individual practices and characteristics like attitude, cultural beliefs, knowledge and practices prevalent in the society and utilization of health services. Health seeking behavior is governed by multiple factors. Most of the maternal deaths are avoidable because of availability of healthcare services for preventing or managing complications are well known. All women need access to antenatal care services in pregnancy, skilled care during childbirth and care & support in the weeks after childbirth. It is also important that all births are attended by skilled health professionals as timely management and treatment can make the difference between life and death. The cross-sectional study was carried out to explore the Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of slum dwellers with special reference to utilization of maternal health services and to analyze the relationship of socio-economic and demographic factors influencing utilization of these services. A total of 359 residential households were set as sample size for the study in all selected cities of Rajasthan State. The coverage of ANC was very poor among the slum women. It was also extracted from the data that Ante-Natal Care services were not being fully utilized by the slum women and factors like time consuming process at hospital, quality of services rendered at govt. hospitals, distance & poor transport facilities, lack of knowledge about maternal health services and cultural beliefs were major obstacles in accessing ANC services at healthcare institutions. Therefore, ANC services like assistance of service providers; IFA intake and TT vaccination among the women should be enhanced in the slum areas. Government, private sector or NGOs all three should jointly do this by increasing infrastructure and facilities. Besides this, the slum people of the study areas should be made aware of the available health facilities in health institutions and pregnant women and their family members should be encouraged to receive Ante-Natal Care services. 

55-59
10

Title : Trichomonas vaginalis, Genetic Variation, and Pathogenicity: a Systematic Review

Authors : Patricia Abreu Pinheiro de Lemos, Waldemar Naves do Amaral

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Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted infection that has been associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and cervical cancer.  The objective of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to identify the genetic variations of Trichomonas vaginalis and their correlations with the vaginal environment in the human host. Two electronic databases, PubMed and the Virtual Health Library (Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde), were searched using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and Health Sciences Descriptors (DeCS), respectively. The terms “T. vaginalis and genetic variation” and “T. vaginalis and oxidative stress” were searched to identify relevant original articles.  The inclusion and exclusion criteria established took into consideration the specific characteristics of each article, thus guaranteeing the quality of the papers selected (the first and second tests of relevance).  Two principal types of population structure of T. vaginalis were reported in the papers: type 1 and type 2.  Type 1 parasites were associated with pathogenicity, as shown by findings of increased viral loads in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women.

60-64
11

Title : Occult Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy: Epidemiological and Clinical Implications

Authors : Teresa Olea, Inmaculada Castillo, Elena Gonzaaez, Lucia Rodriguez-Gayo, Javier Bartolome, Marco Vaca, Juan Antonio Quiroga, Rosario Madero,Rafael Selgas,Vicente Carreno

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Background:A high prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in patients with diabetic kidney disease (DKD) has been reported. However, the epidemiology and relationship between DKD and occult HCV infection (OCI)are unknown.Objetives: To determine the prevalence of OCI in a population without conventional markers of HCV infection diagnosed with DKD, and to study its possible clinical implications.Study design: This prospective study included 125 anti-HCV and serum HCV-RNA-negative patients with DKD for the presence of OCI. HCV-RNA was tested by real-time reverse transcription PCR in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and in plasma after ultracentrifugation. Results: OCI was positive in 10 patients (8%). The patients with OCI had significantly higher ferritin levels (p=.002) and monoclonal gammopathy (30% [3/10] vs. 0.87% [1/115] than the patients without OCI [p=.003]). We found similar plasma ALT and GGT levels and HbA1C in both groups. At the end of the follow-up, the progression rate of renal disease tended to be faster in the group with OCI relative to the negative one, but without a significant difference. We did not find an association between OCI and cardiovascular morbidity.  Conclusions: There was an 8% prevalence of OCI in patients with chronic renal failure secondary to DKD, higher than in the general population. This occult infection does not appear to play a role in the control of diabetes, cardiovascular risk or steatosis. However, the progression rate of renal disease tended to be faster, and the incidence of associated monoclonal gammopathy was significant. 

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