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Volume 3 Issue 4

S.No. Title & Authors Page No View
1

Title : Determinants Of Oxidant Load In Broncho Alveolar Milieu

Authors : Giuseppe Valerio M.D., Donato Lacedonia M.D., Pierluigi Bracciale M.D, Fabio Valerio

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The lung is exposed to inhaled xenobiotics detemining direct damage , macrophage activation and neutrophils recruitment  with an overwhelming oxidant load in broncho-alveolar milieu and alveolar macrophages leading to pulmonary damage .

Our aim is to assess the biologic activity of oxygen radicals (ROS) and  biologic antioxidant potential (BAP) in broncho-alveolar fluids and blood in healthy subjects and in  patients affected by COPD under GOLD stage  II and III and IPF  and to assess the relationship between ROS and macrophage function.In thirteen healthy subjects , twenty patients affected by COPD and twenty affected by IPF  we  assessed  pulmonary function , blood gases ,  ROS and BAP  in blood samples , broncho-alveolar lavage(BAL), expired breath condensate  and sovranatant of alveolar macrophages culture.

In patients  ROS were increased both in blood (474±177, 345±123 vs 192±46 U Car in COPD , IPF and healthy people respectively) ,  and in broncho-alveolar lavage (99±24 , 94±33 , vs77±14 )and in macrophage culture media(99 ± 37, 106±45 vs 80 ± 15). BAP were mildly decreased in blood (2162±668, 2031±562vs2553±679 mM/lt) , but they were normal in BAL(1064±432, 910±222 vs 882±241 ). ROS/BAP ratio  was significantly increased in blood (0.21±03 vs0.08±.01 U Carr/mM/l) with overlap  in BAL (0.09±02 vs0.08 ±.2 ) . ROS in BAL were significantly related  to acid phosphatases and  ROS  produced by Mf in media culture  . ROS load in blood is highly significant under  COPD and IPF . ROS and BAP were several folds more concentrated in BAL than in blood by active secretion . Macrophages are the most important source of ROS in BAL .

01-05
2

Title : Impact of Teaching Isotopes in Chemistry 5070 Using the Historic Approach on Zambian Grade 11 Pupils Achievement and Motivation

Authors : Chisenga Abily, Phillip Daka, Overson Shumba

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This action research explored the impact of the historic approach on pupils’ motivation and achievement. The study involved two grade eleven classes studying Chemistry 5070 at a secondary school in in Zambia. The two classes had 104 pupils and out of these 34.6% were girls while 65.3% were boys. The study adopted a counterbalanced quasi-experimental design. The experimental group was taught using the historic approach combined with the lecture discussion method while the control group was taught using the lecture discussion method only. After teaching four lessons, the class that was the experimental group became the control group and the one that was the control group became the experimental group. Achievement was assessed using results from a chemistry test while the one that related to motivation was assessed using results from a questionnaire and classroom observations. A t-test was used to compare the counterbalanced groups at 95% confidence level. Results and findings obtained both from the achievement test and a questionnaire survey revealed that the historic approach contributed positively to pupils’ achievement and motivation towards chemistry. Results of this study suggest that there were significant positive gains in pupils’ motivation and achievement in chemistry when using the historic model. These gains were higher for the historic model compared to those obtained when using the lecture discussion method only.

06-10
3

Title : Case Report: Normoglycemic Diabetic Ketoacidosis Post Gastric Botulinum Toxin Injection for Weight Loss

Authors : Dr. Riyadh Hammamy, Dr. Khalid Farooqui, Dr. Mohamed Shariff, Dr.Wissam Ghadban

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True normoglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis (when the blood glucose is below 200 mg/dl) is relatively uncommon and in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can be caused by starvation due to various reason, like prolonged fasting, malnutrition, persistent vomiting,post bariatric gastric surgery, chronic alcohol intake, Atkins diet, pregnancy and eating disorder. It is also encountered following the endoscopic procedure using gastric botulinum toxin injection as part of non-surgical bariatric procedure for weight loss in obese people. This procedure can be unsafe in diabetic patients as it is difficult to achieve glycemic control due to unpredicted gastric emptying time and the ability of the individual to have adequate nutrition. We report a case with normoglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis precipitated by starvation post gastric botulinum toxin injection in a patient with T2DM. On presentation patient was acidotic with positive blood ketones and a blood glucose levels of 106 mg/dl, after correction of acidosis the patient was discharged. This case highlights the need to assess the acid-based status even with normal blood glucose levels, especially in those who have received a gastric botulinum toxin injection resulting in poor oral intake.

11-13
4

Title : Cervical Laminoplasty with Polypropylene Mesh: Our Experience

Authors : Domenico Murrone, Bruno Romanelli, Aldo Ierardi, Gennaro Perrino

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Cervical laminoplasty was made to reduce the complications of the simple laminectomy. The main indication is degenerative cervical myelopathy with posterior compression to two or more levels. To simplify this procedure with more effectiveness, we conceived a cervical laminoplastica with polypropylene mesh, generally used in abdominoplasty, to provide more resistance during mechanisms of flexion-extension. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 35 patients (27 males, 8 females) with degenerative cervical myelopathy who underwent surgical tretament at our institution between 2010 and 2015. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The main duration of surgery was about 90 minutes without intra or post-operative complications. Clinical and radiological follow-up was done at 1, 3 and 6 months, with cervical dynamic Rx and cervical RM at 1one year. There were no complications and 70% of the patients experienced a stable clinical improvement, while in 30% of patients stabilization of clinical deficits. The duration of the superior clinical to one year and the age > of 70 years the more meaningful negative prognostic indicators have appeared. CONCLUSIONS: A clinical history more than one year and the age elder than 70 years appear the main negative prognostic factors. The advantage of the laminoplasty is a smaller anatomical damage of the posterior elements without cervical instability, and use of polypropylene mesh provides more resistance during flexion-extension.

14-16
5

Title : Arthrodesis of the Lumbar Vertebrae after Radiosurgery for Residual Malignant Schwannoma

Authors : Domenico Murrone, Bruno Romanelli, Aldo Ierardi

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In past years, instrumentation options for stabilization were very limited and spinal surgery was restricted to dorsal decompression alone. As technology evolved, surgeons began to approach the spine using lateral or ventral approaches, in addition to the standard dorsal approach using fusion and instrumentation and the effect of radiation on bones has been extensively described. CASE REPORT: 51 year old patient who had undergone in 2013 subtotal resection of malignant schwannoma (Ki67> 50%) at L4 level right through laminectomy and artrectomia partial at L4 and L5 with outcomes of mild erectile dysfunction. It was performed following adjuvant radiotherapy at L4-L5 level (46 Gy). In April 2015 reported lumbar accidental trauma with detection of burst fracture and diastasis intracanal of large fragment at L3 level. Neurologically the patient had no additional neurological deficits than in the past. After stabilization of hemodynamic parameters, the patient underwent arthrodesis L2-L4 bilateral transpedicular percutaneous The postoperative course was normal with patient mobilization with lumbar bust in the third day. DISCUSSION: It is commonly known that radiation hinders the fusion process and reduces the strength of bones. The effect of radiotherapy on bony metabolism has been widely discussed but its role in influencing the failure of instrumented fusion has not yet been definitively analysed. Moreover, the most appropriate technique of instrumented fusion to be used after radiotherapy is not established. CONCLUSIONS: In the literature there are no significant studies about the spinal instrumentation after radiosurgery. From our point of view, the fusion is possible due to the extreme hardness of the vertebrae previously irradiated. The choice of the arthrodesis percutaneously depended on the need to avoid significant complications.

17-19
6

Title : Senior Phase Science Teachers Pedagogic Content Knowledge of the Periodic Table: A Case Study of Selected Schools in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Authors : PJH Heeralal, T Dhurumraj

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Learner performance in science is cause for concern in South Africa. Science teachers’ pedagogic content knowledge plays a significant role in learner performance. This paper examines teacher pedagogic content knowledge in a key area of the Natural Science curriculum in the Senior Phase of the General Education and Training (GET) band, namely the Periodic Table. Understanding how the periodic table of elements is organized and how to read information from it is fundamental for understanding chemistry [1]. This study forms part of a larger study that compares the pedagogic content knowledge of South African and Zimbabwean teachers concerning the Periodic Table.  A qualitative approach was used to collect data from secondary schools science teachers inKwaZulu-Natal. The data indicates that pedagogic content knowledge of teachers concerning the Periodic Table is limited due to factors such as inadequate preparation of lessons by teachers, inappropriate deployment within the school, limited availability of resource materials and support from the department of education. Based on the findings, teachers will be observed teaching lessons on the Periodic Table so that an assessment can be made of their pedagogical content knowledge, in order to design and implement strategies to improve teacher PCK, thus improve teaching and learning of science.

20-24
7

Title : A New Record to the Flora of Saudi Arabia: Ipomoea carneaJacq., Convolvulaceae

Authors : Yassin M. Al-Sodany

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Ipomoea carneaJacq.(Family Convolvulaceae) form Jazan, Saudi Arabia is described as a new record species to the flora of Saudi Arabia. The farmers use it as ornamental and hedge plant along the edge of their farm. The rapid growth rate, spread, and adaptability from aquatic to xerophytic habitats indicate that this plant may potentially become an invasive species in the next decade in that area and may cause other ecological disaster. Besides causing problems as a pasture weed, I. carneais reported to be a toxic plant.

25-30
8

Title : Is There a Difference in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Between Newly Diagnosed Male and Female Korean Diabetes Subjects?: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Authors : Su Kyoung Kwon

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In the general population, males show increased cardiovascular disease prevalence compared to females of similar age. However, evidence suggests women with diabetes might show similar or even increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to diabetic males of similar age. The aim of this study was to demonstrate if future CVD risk gender differences exist at the time of diabetes diagnosis, and to examine which CVD risk factors contribute to increased CVD risk in Korean women with diabetes compared to men with incident diabetes. CVD gender risk factor differences were investigated in subjects from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Surveys (KNHANES), 2007-2010, CVD risks were estimated using the Framingham risk prediction model, and the relative attribution power of CVD risk factors were analyzed by gender and risk groups. 402 subjects (1.8%) were drawn from 33,829 population-based subjects newly diagnosed with diabetes. There were no significant gender differences for 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD) and CVD risk at the time of diabetes diagnosis. Hypercholesterolemia, high LDL-cholesterol, low HDL-cholesterol and abdominal obesity prevalence were higher in newly diagnosed diabetic women than men in the CHD risk groups. The odds ratio for increased CHD risk for abdominal obesity was 4.656, higher LDL-cholesterol was 2.837, lower HDL-cholesterol was 2.958 and hypercholesterolemia was 1.940 in newly diagnosed diabetic women compared to men.

In conclusion, abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia control can be the most important treatment strategy to reduce future CVD risk in newly diagnosed Korean diabetic women.

31-36
9

Title : Xenoestrogen Exposure Affects Early-Onset Puberty Among Young Girls in Western Saudi Arabia: A primary cross-sectional study

Authors : Abdulmoein Eid Al-Agha, Abdulaziz Mohammed Alkahtani, Ahmed Ali Basalama, Rehab Salah Aldin Alhindi

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Background: To investigate the correlation between xenoestrogen and the impact on early pubertal development among young girls in Western Saudi Arabia.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 794 young girls. Data were collected between June 5, 2016 and August 25, 2016 from the Pediatric Endocrine Clinic at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The clinical characteristics of the participants were recorded.

Results: The mean age of the participants was 10.87 years. The most common xenoestrogen products used daily included plastic packaging materials (n=353; 44.5%), pesticides (n=351; 44.2%), and plastic water bottles (n=311; 39.2%); the least common product used daily was food preservatives (n=101; 12.7%). There was a significant inverse relationship between the use of plastic packaging materials and age of breast (p=0.027) and pubic hair (p=0.005) development. Furthermore, there was a significant association between the increased use of pesticides and early development of pubic hair (p=0.044). A total of 516 participants were yet to experience menarche, which represented 65% of the total sample size for this study.

 Conclusion: There was a direct relationship between the frequent usage of various xenoestrogen products and early development of breasts, pubic hair, and age of menarche among young girls living in Western Saudi Arabia.

37-40
10

Title : Some Properties of Entire Functions Associated with L-entire Functions on C(I)

Authors : Roberto Contreras, Hector D. Ramirez, Nelva B. Espinoza

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In this paper, let C(I) denote the Banach algebra of all continuous complex-valued functions defined on a close interval I in the set of real numbers, R. The functions having derivatives in the Lorch sense on the whole Banach algebra C(I) are considered and they are called L-entire functions [1, 3]. For each L-entire function on C(I), entire complex functions are associated and the relationship between their orders is studied. Even more, the possibility of locating the solutions of the equation F(f) = 0 from the location of zeros of the associated family of entire functions with F is analyzed too.

41-44
11

Title : Soil N-transformation Rates in Two Differently Managed Dry Deciduous Forests of West Bengal, India

Authors : Sangita Ganguli, Hema Gupta (Joshi), Kashinath Bhattacharya

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N-mineralization is crucial to supply available N for plant growth and productivity in forest ecosystem. A study was conducted to estimate the soil N-transformation rates (N-mineralization and nitrification) in two differently managed dry deciduous forest ecosystems. The study areas included Ballavpur Wildlife Sanctuary (created and protected; 23°39'25"N to 87°41'39"E) in Birbhum district and Garhjungle (natural and sacred; 23°40'54.4"N to 87°40'20.2"E) in Burdwan district of West Bengal, India. Soil samples were collected for an annual cycle divided in three seasons (winter, summer and rainy) during January 2014 to September 2014. Both N-mineralization and nitrification rates were higher in Ballavpur than Garhjungle. The annual mean for N-mineralization rate was 14.9 and 20.5 µg g-1 month-1 and nitrification rate was 11.8 and 16.7 µg g-1 month-1 in Garhjungle and Ballavpur, respectively. N-mineralization and nitrification rates as well as soil moisture content were highest in rainy season and lowest in summer season. These rates were significantly positively correlated with soil moisture and negatively with soil mineral-N content. The result suggested that the variation in the rates soil N-transformations were related to the differences in soil moisture content, nutrient status, organic matter content and vegetation types.

45-49
12

Title : Synthesis, Toxicological, Anticoagulant Activity and Quantumchemical Study of Bis-coumarins and Other Coumarin Derivatives

Authors : Ilia Manolov, Ivan Dimitrov, Nikolai Danchev, Ivanka Kostadinova

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Fifteen 4-hydroxycoumarin derivatives were synthesized. Seven of them are described for the first time. By means of X-ray crystal structure analysis of 4-hydroxy-3-[(2-оxо-2Н-chromen-3-yl)-(2-еthoxycarbonylphenyl) methyl]-chromen-2-оne (3) and 3-[2,6-dichlorophenyl) (еthoxy) methyl]-4- hydroxy- 2Н-chromen-2-оne (6) were confirmed the structure of these compounds previously by us. A comparative pharmacological study of the anticoagulant effect with respect to warfarin showed that the synthesized compounds have different anticoagulant activities. The QSTR model derived on the set of seventeen 4-hydroxycoumarin derivatives indicates that low i.p. toxicity could be achieved for a compound with large surface, unbranched molecule, with electronegative neighbour substituents and missing phydroxylgroup in the aldehyde fragment of the molecule.

50-64
13

Title : Education in Multicultural School in Greece

Authors : Dr Lapousis George, Petsiou Elisavet

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the way in which teachers face multiculturalism and factors such as gender and teaching in primary or secondary education. The survey involved 381 teachers of primary (198) and secondary (183) education. The choice of schools was made from all the prefecture of Larissa, Greece schools with the method of random sampling. The questionnaire was selected as data collection instrument. For statistical analysis it was applied analysis of variance of one factor (One-way ANOVA) to detect differences between the factors and the Multiple Comparison Test was applied (Scheffe post-hoc), for the investigation of individual differences. The results of Analysis of Variance ANOVA revealed that there were statistically significant differences in gender F(1,380) = 5,96, p <.05, and the finish of the inequalities, gender F (1,380) = 3,74, p <. 05, and the social situation of foreign student, gender F(1,380) = 3,32, p <.05, and racial disparities in school, gender F(1,380) = 5,04, p <.05, and the existence of racism in the classroom, gender F(1,380) = 4,21, p <.05, and the importance of research lesson in schools, teaching in primary or secondary education F(1,380) = 6,94, p <.05 and cooperation. In conclusion from the study demonstrated the complexity and the various dimensions of the issue of multiculturalism in education and the many factors considered and that together affect both teachers and students with an immigrant background.

65-68
14

Title : Anti - Gene IGF-I Technology applied for Cancer Immunotherapy

Authors : Jerzy Trojan

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IGF-I is one of the most important growth factors related to normal differentiation, and its overproduction in mature tissues is a sign of neoplastic processesin three derivatives: neuroectodermal e.g. brain malignant glioma, entodermal e.g. hepatocarcinoma, and mesodermal e.g. prostate adenocarcinoma. The creation in the early 1990s of a new domain in cancerology named cancer immunogene therapy, has revolutionized the treatment of tumors expressing IGF-I. This new strategy, using anti-gene, either antisense or triple helix anti IGF-I technology, has shown promising results in clinical trials; the median survival of glioblastoma patients reached 21 months and in some cases, three to four years. This strategy was also proven to be efficient in the treatment of liver and prostate cancers.

 

69-77
15

Title : Expressive Therapy with Children who were Sexually Abused: An Overview

Authors : R. R. Trivedi, T.G. Rejani

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Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) is considered a grave issue demanding immediate attention and action to attenuate the prevalence rate. Despite of increasing level of awareness regarding Child Sex Ratio (CSR), the imbalance in this ratio in India and other parts of the world are increasing [1, 2]. Also, even though there are initiatives taken at the primary preventive level, there is a dearth of focused research on exploring the intervention approaches for psychological healing of children who have been sexually abused.  Therefore this paper is just a drop in the ocean, attempting to provide a review of the current research base of Expressive Therapies with children who were sexually abused. This overview attempts to familiarize practitioners with various options of contemporary approaches other than therapies based on cognition and behavioral. It also provides support for the effectiveness and feasibility of Expressive therapies with children who have experienced sexual abuse.

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