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Volume 3 Issue 2

S.No. Title & Authors Page No View
1

Title : Application of Federalism in Iraq from the Legal Jurisprudence View Point

Authors : Esraa Mahmood Badr Alsamee, Harlida Abdul Wahab, Yuhanif Yusof

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The purpose of this paper is to explore the application of federalism in Iraq under constitution of 2005. After the fall of political regime in 2003, Iraq adopted federalism under the Constitution of 2005. The application of federalism in Iraq has caused an argument among supporters, opponents, deniers its application, although it is compatible with a multi-ethnic, religious and national in Iraq. This paper will demonstrate those opinions and arguments supported in order to determine the extent to which appropriate presence of the application of federal system in Iraq under the Constitution of 2005 practiced. This study will be conducted through doctrinal approach; data will be collected through secondary source by examining the contribution scholars in this field. The research will help countries seek to apply a federal system in a way that has similar conditions to Iraq, gaining from the benefit of the Iraqi experience with federalism.

01-04
2

Title : Colorectal Cancer: Molecular Classification And Clinical Application

Authors : Amrallah A. Mohammed, Ahmad A. Mirza , Hani EL-Tanni, Abdulrahim A. Mirza , Emran H. Alsawaf

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Genetic -depth study showed the perplexity of molecular heterogeneity of colorectal cancer (CRC). Though various therapies exist, we do not have the proper way to choose the right treatment for each patient, personalized treatment strategies are in demand. For CRC, a broad molecular classification is still missing. We wish to apply the molecular techniques to improve the outcome. Our intention in this review is to summarize the molecular classification of CRC and their reflection on management.

05-09
3

Title : Public Knowledge of Stroke Amongst a Saudi Population

Authors : Wijdan M Basfar,Awatef E Al-Sebyani, Ghufran A Aljawi, Haneen A Milyani,Mohammed M. Jan

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Background:Adequate public awareness and knowledge of stroke is needed for proper identification and prevention of potential morbidity and disability. This study was conducted to examine the public stroke awareness and knowledge in a regional Saudi population.

Methods:A cross sectional study was conducted using a structuredquestionnaire designed to examine public knowledge about stroke warning signs, risk factors, and acute management. Participants were included during an educational stroke campaign at a large shopping center in Jeddah, Saudi Arabiaduring the month of August, 2011.

Results:A total of 506 participants were included. Most participants were young (62% <30 years), females (70%), and well educated (80% had a university degree). Although most participants (87%) recognized stroke definition and the need for urgent medical attention, only 34% rated their stroke knowledge as good.Factors correlating with giving the correct answers to the stroke warning signs and risk factors including female gender (92% females vs 83% males, p=0.003) and adequate financial income (91% adequate vs 74% inadequate, p=0.017). On the other hand, factors correlating significantly with the general perception of good stroke knowledge included younger age (<30 years), female gender, being single, having university education, and residing in an urban area.

Conclusion:Although most participates were able to recognized stroke symptoms and the need for urgent medical attention, their level of knowledge was weak and correlated with their social, economic, and educational levels. Further education is needed in our region.

 

10-12
4

Title : Smart Meters - Keeping Users Privacy

Authors : Alves Andre Luiz ,Fonseca Keiko Veronica Ono

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Electric power distribution systems are evolving toward more intelligent models allowing distribution organizations to have a perspective on how consumption is happening. However, these systems may allow for violation of consumer privacy, as they can identify the equipment in use, allowing for profiling of user activities. This work addresses the need to develop a mechanism to protect privacy, and presents an option for creating this protection for individual electric power consumer units through intermediate encryption of readings from these individual units, allowing suppliers access not to individual readings, but sum of their total.

13-17
5

Title : How Likely Clinically Suspicious Looking Cervix is Cervical Cancer?

Authors : Ying Yiing Lou, Sahathevan Sathiyathasan

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Clinically suspicious looking cervix does not always mean cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or cervical cancer but it can be caused by other benign and inflammatory conditions. It was recommended that the patients should be initially seen urgently in the general gynaecology clinic rather than in the colposcopy unit because most of them will not have cancer. Consideration should be taken into account in those women who have risk factors for cervical cancer especially postcoidal bleeding (PCB).

18-19
6

Title : Germany and the United States: A Comparison of Support for Wind Energy

Authors : Dr. Patricia A. Terry

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Germany leads the world in per capita wind energy production and public acceptance for wind energy is very high compared to a lack of support observed in the United States. A comparative study delineates many reasons for this difference. First, the U.S. has recently gained economically through hydraulic fracturing and off-shore oil development, while Germany lacks oil and natural gases and views renewable energy as its economic driver.  The formation of coalition governments in Germany has provided a voice for the Green Party and resulted in significant renewable energy policy legislation, while the U.S. has a more winner take all two party system in which lobby groups, particularly those for the fossil fuel industry, have greatly influenced energy policy away from renewables. Germans, in general, widely accept global climate change and a need to mitigate its causes, while both Bush presidential administrations in the U.S. attempted to discredit government scientists’ warnings of the effects of climate change. In addition, the difference in ownership of television channels between the two countries and what may be advertised influences people’s opinions of what energy sources are best. Perhaps the greatest reason for the success of wind energy in Germany, however, is the development of community wind farms, in which all citizens are involved in the siting of systems and have equal access to invest and profit and for which tax revenues return to the hosting community. Because of this there is no such thing as Wind Turbine Syndrome and the German saying is “every flicker is a euro.”

 

20-27
7

Title : Vague Cosets

Authors : Ch. Mallika, N. Ramakrishna, G.Anandha Rao

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In this paper we study the vague cosets and their properties.These concepts  are used in the development of some important results and theorems about vague groups and vague normalgroups.Also some of their important properties have been investigated.

28-31
8

Title : Burnout Syndrome Among Health Workers At A Brazilian Public Hospital Run By A Social Health Organization

Authors : Paulo de Oliveira Vasconcelos Filho

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When stress is a chronic problem associated with work, it is referred to as Burnout syndrome (BS). The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of BS among health professionals at a Brazilian public hospital run by a social health organization.

This is a qualitative descriptive study describing the experiences of workers at a public hospital located in Cubatão, SP, Brazil. A hundred thirty-eight professionals agreed to participate in the study. The cohort included 27 physicians, 46 nurses and 65 nursing technicians. The study was done using a two-part questionnaire. The first part included questions designed to investigate socio-demographic data. The second part included the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI).

The demographic data collected are as follows: the average age of participants was 34,6 years (± 5.4), the prevalence of women was 68%and the marital status most reported was a stable union (38.5%). All participants had completed at least a technical education. Most participants were nursing technicians (51.2%), and the average hiring time by the institution was 5.5 years (± 2.1). 76% were employed by the organization and 24% had outsourcing contract. According to the criteria of MBI-HSS, fifteen respondents (10.8%) had BS. For nurses, there was a positive association between low professional accomplishment (PA) and women (OR = 2.6; IC 95% [0.9; 7.3]; p=0,05), and between married and emotional exhaustion (OR = 1.6; IC 95% [0.3; 2.3]; p=0.04). For nursing technicians, a positive association between depersonalization (DE) and age 31-35 years (OR = 1.8; 95% CI [0.5; 5.9]; p = 0.05), and between DE the period of time in the job 4 – 7 years (OR = 7.9; 95% CI [0.9; 71.1]; p = 0.03). As for the physicians, the positive association was between period of time in the job 4 – 7 years and low PA (OR = 1.7; 95% CI [0.6; 5.1]; p = 0.04). Our results showed a moderate frequency of emotional exhaustion and low professional accomplishment in a Brazilian public hospital.  Exhaustion and lack of professional interest may be related to inadequate human resources policies.

32-37
9

Title : Effect of Textile Effluent on Geotechnical Properties of Expansive Soil for Flexible Pavements

Authors : Dr.R.Kumutha, Dr.K.Vijai, S.Naga Priya, R.Rajapriya, P.Sindhusri

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Soil stabilization can be done in a number of ways. Chemical stabilization methods are highly effective when compared with mechanical stabilization. But the cost of the chemicals makes the process to be a costly one. The present experimental work studies the feasibility of using textile effluent for the stabilization of black cotton soil. Soil sample taken for the study is highly plastic and requires stabilization. Textile effluent from the local industries is to be disposed after several stages of treatment to minimize the environmental risk. Textile effluent is found to be alkaline and also has the cations that can be utilized in chemical stabilization of clayey soil. Different percentages of textile effluent are added to the soil sample and observations are made for the changes in the properties of soil such as plasticity index, swell index, Unconfined Compressive Strength and California Bearing Ratio. The swelling, plasticity and strength characteristics are considerably increased with addition of effluent. From the observation of geotechnical properties 100% of effluent is observed to be optimum for use in practical purposes. Treatment with effluent is recommended for the improvement of clayey sub grade.

38-42
10

Title : Instagram: The New Edge of Online Retailing

Authors : Dr. Jas Raj Bohra, Mallika Bishnoi

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With the increase in popularity of social networking, they pose immense potentials and challenges for the future of E-commerce. Latest developments have emerged to leverage the power of social networking with online shopping. Social Shopping is the resultant of Social Media’s impact on e-tailing. The use of social networking sites is now no more restricted to chatting, creating a page or making friends but has now moved to another level which involves Online Retailing. Social sites like Pinterest, Facebook, Instagram, etc. have been adopted by the retailers and consumers as a shopping platform. Users on social shopping sites can post product recommendations, share photos, form social shopping communities and make purchases. Despite enormous business interests and potentials, little is known about whether the internet users will adopt such systems. This paper aims at determining the online retailing on Instagram and how customers are attracted towards this form of online stores on a social networking site. The paper also provides marketing suggestions for the retailers on Instagram and similar social networking sites.

43-46
11

Title : Gene Expression Signatures of Ductal Breast Carcinoma Shows Differentially Expression of Cell Cycle, Proliferation and Apoptosis Related Genes

Authors : Lokman Varisli

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Breast cancer is one of the most common malignant diseases among women in western countries. Ductal carcinoma of the breast is a pre-invasive malignant lesion that is curable. However, undetected or untreated tumors can progress to invasive breast cancer. Therefore, understanding of molecular changes in this tumor and determining of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers will be valuable for early diagnosis and predict of prognosis in this disease. In this study, we investigated differentially expressed genes in ductal carcinoma of breast. Moreover, we also investigated probable mechanisms that abrogated in these lesions. The results have shown that there are 96 upregulated and 110 downregulated gene in ductal breast cancer compared normal breast. Analyzing of this gene list revealed that upregulated genes are significantly enriched cell cycle term. However, downregulated genes are enriched regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis terms.

47-50
12

Title : The Factors That Influence Beef Cattle Marketing Efficiency and The Behavior Of Pastoralists: A Case Study In Kenya

Authors : Stephen G. Mbogoh, Kimpei Munei, Mathew K. Komen, Juma M. Mohammed

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This review article shows that the paradigms on the best methods of utilizing the fragile land resources in arid and semi-arid land areas (ASALs) vary, but nomadic pastoralism which is livestock keeping under constant mobility in search of water and pasture often is the main source of livelihoods for the people living in such areas. For Kenya, the ASALs constitute about 80% of the country's land area that is home to about 60% of Kenya's livestock population. However, the ASALs in Kenya suffer frequent droughts with concomitant devastating effects on livestock, and the poverty incidence in these areas is way above Kenya's national average. This situation calls for efforts to explore effective interventions to reduce poverty for pastoralists in the ASALs. Improving marketing efficiency and off-take rates for pastoral livestock to enhance household incomes has been recommended as one of these strategies. However, attempts to implement this strategy have proved ineffective, primarily because even though the pastoralists tend to keep large livestock herds, often they are unwilling to offer much for sale in the market. This study sought to identify and evaluate the factors that influence the pastoralists' beef-cattle marketing behaviour and efficiency in the ASALs of Kenya. The study found that cattle calving rate, cattle purchases rate, off-pastoral income and pastoral household dependency ratio are the main factors that influence pastoral beef-cattle marketing behaviour and efficiency. Contrary to conventional expectations, this study found that pastoral household decisions on beef cattle off-take rate in Kenya are not influenced by market information.

51-58
13

Title : A Comparative Study of Susceptibility of HepG2 and HaCat cells to DNA Damage

Authors : Ghazalla Benhusein, Elaine Mutch, Jamal Elmezogi, Yousef Taher, Adel Abushofa, Faith Williams

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Background: Hydrogen peroxide is a natural source of oxidative DNA damage in cells generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are responsible for DNA damage and apoptosis. Aim: We investigated the susceptibility of HepG2 and HaCat cells to DNA damage capacity induced by hydrogen peroxide, as well as to compare the differential sensitivities of both types of cells to DNA damage. Methods: HepG2 and HaCat cells were challenged with 25 µM hydrogen peroxide for 5, 30, 40, 60 min and 24 hr using Comet assay. Results: DNA damage was significantly increased in both HepG2 and HaCat cells at all times of incubation (p<0.001), but not at 24hr. Furthermore, there was a clear decrease in the amount of DNA damage was observed at 24 hr time of incubation, which is accompanied with decrease in DNA migration length in both HepG2 and HaCat cells. Conclusion: Our results confirm that the profile of DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide was similar in both HepG2 and HaCat cells. However, the reduction in the amount of DNA damage could be due to of possibility of cellular DNA repair.

59-62
14

Title : Experimental Investigation of Performance and Emissions using Ethanol Petrol Blends in SI Engine-A Comparative Study of 2-Stroke and 4- Stroke SI Engines

Authors : P. Sivaram, Dr. N. Haribabu, K. Siddhardha Kumar, B.V.V Prasada Rao

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The huge consumption of fossil fuels is directly affects the economy of our country as importing it from other countries so this may give scope for many researchers to find other alternatives to drag out the usage of petroleum. Thus, using bio-fuel as an alternative, the problem could be reduced. Also the transportation mainly depends on the fossil fuels particularly liquid fuels which are depleting at much faster rate than production. The transport vehicles also based on usage operated on 2-stroke and 4 –stroke engines. In present work both the test engines are considered for experimental study with approximately equal horse power and rated speed for comparative study, run with various blends of gasoline-ethanol and also evaluated using pure petrol fuel without any modification in a present engine.  India is ranked second place in cultivating sugar cane, from which ethanol is produced and 99% purity ethanol is considered for the preparation of test fuels. Experiments were conducted using different blends of gasoline-ethanol such as E0 (Pure petrol), E20 (20% of ethanol in vol.based), E30 (30% of ethanol in vol.based), E40 (40% of ethanol in vol.based), and E50 (50% of ethanol in vol.based) and its effect on specific fuel consumption, break thermal efficiency and emissions with respect to the engine load taking pure petrol as datum. The results of experimental investigation were compared between 2-stroke and 4 –stroke engines. Results show that alternative fuel like ethanol blending with gasoline increases the thermal efficiency in 4-stroke engine, liberates less emission and also noticed the better combustion.

63-67
15

Title : The Farmer Response to Conservation Agriculture in Monze, Zambia

Authors : Joseph T. Mwale, Idani Lichilo, Mutinta Muyangwa

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Conservation agriculture is promoted as a sustainable agricultural practice in Zambia in the wake of increasing shifts in rainfall patterns along with land degradation. Yet the practice has been partially adopted by most small-scale farmers in spite of the well-established socio-economic benefits. As part of the scientific endeavour to understand the socio-dynamics of conservation agriculture, this paper assesses the farmer response to the emergent agricultural practice under the hypothesis that adoption of the practice as promoted by agricultural development agencies is a pragmatic realization of a disrupted agro-ecological system under the increasing influence of socio-economic and bio-physical factors. Using a combination of principal components analysis and logistic regression, it has been established that there is a positive farmer response to conservation farming in view of the perceived negative effects of climate variability and the high utility derived from engaging in the practice. The most significant factors influencing the farmer response are climate variability and income status of the farmer among other factors including extension service delivery and labour intensity. The analysis leads to a logical conclusion that the probability that a farmer in Manungu agricultural block will adopt conservation farming is 40% if there is poor extension service delivery. It is, therefore, recommended for further research and agricultural development policy that cost-effectiveness should be a central feature of the design of conservation farming technologies for the smallholder farmers in light of the low income status of the farmers; and that pragmatic approaches to extension service delivery should be engaged to ensure successful adoption of conservation farming technologies.

68-73
16

Title : Path Relatively Prime Cordial Graph

Authors : Dr. A. Nellai Murugan ,V.Nishanthini

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The graph that admits a Relatively Prime Cordial Graph is called Relatively Prime Cordial Graph. In this paper, we proved that path related graphs, Relatively Prime Cordial Graph.

74-77
17

Title : Wireless LAN Security: The IEEE 802.11 Risks and Technical Challenges

Authors : Amit Mishra, Dangana Muhammad, Joseph Elijah, Dinesh Kumar

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Wireless local area networks (LANs) are playing a major role in the information technology revolution. They have found their way into a wide variety of markets including financial sectors, corporations, health care, and education.The rapid deployment of wireless LANs is testimony to the inherent benefits of this technology. Unfortunately, most wireless deployments are, at this time, fundamentally insecure. This is not an exaggeration. It is an accurate assessment of the reality of the current state of the security of wireless 802.11-based environments.Because of its transmission characteristic, many security problems have set in. This paper aims to introduce the security mechanism of the wireless LAN and points out the shortcoming of it.

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