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Volume 3 Issue 1

S.No. Title & Authors Page No View
1

Title : Cash and Credit Management Practices of Naga Limited, Dindigul

Authors : Dr.R.Amudha,C.R. Sathiya Narayanan

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To incorporate and progress any business, finance is the sine qua non. Management of funds has become a vibrant element in business. Though strategic planning and raising of funds are essential, controlling and administering of funds receives equal significance as it deals with daily operation of the business. The administering of funds is often referred as working capital management, or fund management, which ensures the sufficient ability in terms of money to endure the day to day operations.

Cash investment levels (Capex) and changes in trade receivables result in the rise of alternative costs affecting net working capital level. The rise and fall of working capital level require the balancing of future free cash flows which influences firms’ value changes. Thus, management of cash and receivables influence the firm’s value.  The study focuses on the cash and credit management of the Naga Ltd. – Retail division (as a credit giver).

The object of the study is to analyze the management of cash and credit and its effect on the firm’s value of Naga Ltd.  The secondary data for the study were taken from the records of the company for the period of five years from March 2011 to March 2015. The values are extrapolated and correlations are computed with the help of the SPSS Package to study the co-relationship between net working capital (NWC), future free cash flow (FFCF) and firm’s value.  It is inferred that firm’s value has a stronger positive correlation with FFCF than NWC.  The firm must take FFCF into account while planning the NWC to increase the firm’s value. By extrapolating NWC, a decreasing trend is anticipated in the near future of the company. It is suggested that the company should revamp its financial strategy to avoid the expected situation and to maintain a favourable working capital position. This will assist the company to enhance its firm’s value in future.

01-05
2

Title : Bacterial Wilt, A Challenge in Solanaceous Crops Production At Kenyan Highlands and Lowlands

Authors : Kariko Elizabeth Kago, Murimi Zacharia Kinyua, Owuor Paul Okemo , Maingi John Muthini

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Ralstonia solanacearum, the causal agent of bacterial wilt disease, results in serious world-wide economic losses particularly in the tropics. Members of the family Solanaceae such as potato, tomato, chili and tobacco are the most affected. A survey was conducted in the period of short rains (October December ) the year 2015, covering  Kenyan highlands and lowland regions of Nyeri, Kiambu, Nyahururu, Kirinyaga, Murang’a, and Embu counties; the major production zones of potato, tomato and capsicum to determine the prevalence, effects and management measures in practice by farmers in control of this bacterium. The findings implicated high dependence of farmers to the solanaceous crops both for income and food (68%), and extensive presence of the bacteria in all the seven study counties. The survey indicated bacterial wilt as a big challenge in production of Solanaceae crops in central Kenya. Lack of elaborate disease management measures and poor seed systems (57%) were found to be the key contributors to the extensive spread, high prevalence (68.57%) and the high incidence (17.74%) of the disease. These findings indicated an urgent need for set up of affordable up to standards seed systems of Solanaceae crops family. This output will enable experimentation of the plant extracts and organic supplements as cheap measures in management of the bacterium leading to alleviation of bacterial wilt challenges in Kenyan highlands and lowlands.

06-11
3

Title : Epidemiology and Management of Facial Soft Tissue Trauma in Calabar, Southern Nigeria

Authors : Ozinko M.O., Bassey G.O., Otei O.O., Ekpo R.G., Mgbe R.B.

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Background: Facial soft tissue trauma is a common emergency condition encountered in our Accident and Emergency Department.

Aim: several protocols have been adopted in the management of facial injuries; this paper reveals our adopted protocol that works for us as well as the associated epidemiology of facial soft tissue injuries.

Methodology: All patients recruited into the casualty department except patients with burn cases were used for this study. Patients were demographically evaluated and their wounds categorized according to their complexity, sites and associated injuries. Management of injuries was in accordance to the American Trauma Life Support (ATLS). The wounds were debrided and treated according to the structures involved. They were managed and discharged with an average of 9months follow- up period. Some minor complications such as wound infection and scarring were noted.

 Results:  2016 soft tissue injuries in 1653 were seen in patients from between January and December, 2014, 104(9%) were associated with facial injuries. The sites of the face involved were the frontal area 41(39%), the cheek 24(22.9%), the nose 18(17.1%), the chin 11(10.5%), the eyelids 6(5.7%) and the lips 5(4.7%). The injuries   were contusions, lacerations, abrasions and avulsions. About 28 cases, representing 26.9%, had fractures of the mandible, maxilla and the frontal bones as well as fracture- dislocation of the temporo-mandibular joints. 22% had various forms of head injuries. Aetiologically, road traffic accidents constituted 44(45%), falls 42(43.7%), sports 6(6.2%), human bites 6(6.2%) and gunshot injuries 2(2.2%). Fifteen deaths were recorded which were due to massive haemorrhage, airway obstruction and severe head injury.

Conclusion: The adoption and application of our management protocol in the management of facial soft tissue injuries has greatly improved the outcome of treatment of facial soft tissue injuries in our facility. 

12-15
4

Title : Tourniquet Injuries In Hand Surgery: Prevention And Management In University of Calabar Teaching Hospital

Authors : Ozinko M.O., Otei O.O., Ekpo R.G., Isiewele E.

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Background: Tourniquet is commonly used in hand surgery to provide bloodless field that will facilitate dissection although fraught with complications. Aims: This study is aimed at identifying complications associated with the use of tourniquet in our practice as well as their prevention and management. Materials and Methods: Our cohort included 152 patients who underwent one of the most common procedures in the unit for hand trauma or infection, tumours including ganglion, syndactyly, trigger finger and camptodactyly with an average follow up period of 8 months. Exclusion criteria included incomplete notes, no documented post operative follow- up, pre-existing soft tissue damage or neurological lesion affecting the limb concerned. 25 patients were excluded because of incomplete or missing notes, 4 no follow-up records and 2 pre-existing nerve or soft tissue injury in the affected hand. Medical notes relating to the cohort were documented, the type of procedures, tourniquet time, adequacy of the bloodless field using the quantity of the estimated blood loss and any intra-operative or post-operative complications were also ascertained.Results: 121 patients  fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were reviewed for the purpose of the study with male to female ratio of 1:1.6, average age of 45years  ranging from 8 months to 72 years. A total of 5 post operative complications were identified: 2 nerve injuries, (neuropraxia which resolved within 6months and post operative tourniquet pain in 3 patients).  The use of tourniquet was discontinued in 3 patients due to venous tourniquet effect with inadequate bloodless field. The duration of tourniquet varies between 30 minutes and 108 minutes with an average interval of 86 per 10minutes. Conclusion: The use of tourniquet is often followed with complications for which the pathophysiology, their preventive measures and management should be known by limb surgeons if they should arise. 

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5

Title : Environmental Survey of Heavy Metals in the Yiluo Basin of East-Central China: Water, Soil and Plants

Authors : Ryunosuke Kikuchi, Carla S. Ferreira, Antonio D. Ferreira

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China's economy has grown at an average of 10% over the last 10 years, but the rapid urbanization and industrialization has released large volumes of pollutants. As it is reported that China is facing an environmental crisis, we carried out a field survey in Luoyang city, which is the center of industrial activities in the Yiluo basin, in order to draw a simple picture of the current environment. The obtained results show that sampled water contained Zn and Pb in rich amounts, soil samples contained large amounts of Zn, Pb, Mn, Cu, Cr and Al, and plant samples (e.g. squashes) contained considerable amounts of Al in particular. The measured metal contents exceed not only the European standard but also China's national standard. Chinese farm products are supplied to the European market. In this sense, the issue associated with metal contamination is not local but global (European concern in particular). It is important to establish a natural reference (i.e. background level) in order to properly assess the contamination degree due to human activities, but this subject remains for a future study.

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6

Title : Identification and Prediction of Heart Disease Based on the Analysis Electrocardiosignals Using a Neural Network

Authors : Mammadov Rahim, Rahimova Yelena, Abdullayeva Sevinc

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At the same time image processing as well as the actual calculations combined with a large volume of incoming information in terms of distortion. Artificial Neural Networks has been selected on the basis of networks for research.In this article had heen given application technique of neural network technology.Radial base network was used for the analysis of cardiosignals. Defining of algorithms according to three groups of cardiosignalswere offered: norm signals, bradycardia and tachycardia.

24-27
7

Title : Development of an Intelligent System for IoT using Web Services and Cyber Physical Approaches

Authors : Ms. Twinkle Jagani, Ms. Snehal Dilip Sawant, Ms. Komal Vijay Sonawane, Ms. Anagha Chaudhari

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The Internet of Things (IoT) is changing the way we perceive information. It has inspired solutions for a variety of everyday problems. With the advent of IoT, the internet will house several “intelligent “objects capable of making their own decisions and communicate with each other in an efficient manner. Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) represent a new paradigm of future intelligent systems. They consist of loosely coupled subsystems which interact with mechanisms of Service oriented Architecture (SoA). One of the most important goals for many organizations is to satisfy their clients’ service level agreements with respect to the response time and throughput. Web services are one of the popular technologies to achieve SOA solutions.Web service is a very important candidate technology to achieve SOA requirements that allows the service providers to publish their services to many service consumers.

 

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8

Title : A Suitable Estimation of Body Surface Area Based on Six Very Used Formulae and on Weight/Height

Authors : Giancarlo Ruggieri

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This study aims to overcome the difficulties caused by the use of different formulae for estimating body surface area (BSA): misappreciations could happen when comparing data differently indexed, particularly in overweight subjects. A table of heights and weights for males and females, based on the Metropolitan Insurance Tables 1983, was composed so to have by each height a wide range of weights and consistent body mass indices, comprised between 21.7 ± 1.33 and 32.8 ± 0.1 kg/m2 for males and between 20.5 ± 1.32 and 32.8 ± 0.09 kg/m2 for females. Based on the weights-heights tables, six BSAs by six widely used formulae were estimated for each set of height and weight. Their average value represented a reference BSA, which was regressed on the ratio of weight/height, and assumed a measure of a correlated BSA. A very high correlation resulted (R2 > 0.998). Using the equations of the regressions, BSA = x + y * weight/height, the corresponding BSAs were estimated, differing from the reference BSA of –0.0783% for males and of 0.023% for females. A further analysis of this method was processed, using for each height 15 random weights, with an average difference 0.19% ± 0.18 for males and 0.038% ± 0.19 for females. Finally, the differences in percentages between indexations operated using the reference BSAs or the BSAs by equation were evaluated, showing an overall average difference of 0.069% for males and of –0.039% for females. The use of these equations may help the clinician avoid the problems due to the differing indexations because they are based on only a single very suitable BSA and because they include a wide range of weights.

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9

Title : Unsupervised Feature Selection Using Evolutionary Algorithms

Authors : Ms. Aishwarya Deshpande, Ms. Sharvari Deshpande, Ms. Monika Doke, Ms. Anagha Chaudhari

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Classification is a central problem in the fields of data mining and machine learning. Using a training set of labelled instances, the task is to build a model (classifier) that can be used to predict the class of new unlabelled instances. Data preparation is crucial to the data mining process, and its focus is to improve the fitness of the training data for the learning algorithms to produce more effective classifiers. Searching for the frequent pattern within a specific sequence has become a much needed task in the various sector. Most recent works are based on Apriori algorithm, GSP, MacroVspan etc. techniques. However, frequent pattern mining can be made more efficient. Two widely applied data preparation methods are feature selection and instance selection, which fall under the umbrella of data reduction.

Feature selection is selecting a subset of optimal features. Feature selection is being used in high dimensional data reduction and it is being used in several applications like medical, image processing, text mining, etc. Several methods were introduced for unsupervised feature selection. Among those methods some are based on filter approach and some are based on wrapper approach.

In the existing work, unsupervised feature selection methods using Genetic Algorithm, Bat Algorithm and Ant Colony Optimization have been introduced. These methods yield better performance for unsupervised feature selection. We will use a novel method to select subset of features from unlabeled data using binary bat algorithm with sum of squared error as the fitness function.

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10

Title : Numerical Simulation of the Deformation of Some MEMS

Authors : Gutierrez G. S., Bermudez B., Alanis J. D.

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In this paper we present the numerical simulation of the deformation of two Micro-Electromechanical Systems (MEMS), a trampoline-type one i.e. a rectangular cantilever beam and an accelerometer that consists of a square plate with all edges simply supported. The deformation of these systems is modeled by fourth-order differential equations, ordinary and partial respectively. We find the approximate solutions by using the finite differences method programmed in Matlab, solving the system of linear equations associated with different methods to evaluate the efficiency of these. We obtained very good approximations with small errors compared to other articles that use other approaches.

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11

Title : Comparison of Academic Achievement of Daily Students, Further Students and Aras Campus of Dentistry School of Tabriz University

Authors : Mohammad Ali Ghavimi, Arezoo Ghoreishizadeh, Negin Ghasemi, Hosein Eslami, Parisa Falsafi

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Background and Objectives: One of the hot issues of concerns of many young people and families is the university entrance exam or Concours . The aim of our study was to compare the academic achievement of students in three categories: daily, Aras campus and post-graduate to each other in Tabriz dentistry school and search the relationship between university admission and their academic achievement.Methods: A total of 45 students of dentistry school of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, including 15 daily quota   students accepted for university entrance examination, 15 students were admitted to Aras campus, 15 post-Graduate students enrolled the study. surgery 4 theoretical , surgery 4 practical, children 3 theoretical, children 3 practical, restorative 3 theoretical, restorative 3 practical courses scores were compared. Scores were analyzed  using Chi-square tests and ANOVA. The significance level in this study was defined  p  0.05.Results: The mean scores of surgery 4 theoretical and practical, children 3 theoretical and practical and theoretical and practical and restorative 3, ordinary students had the highest mean scores  and post-graduate students had the lowest mean score  and the three groups had statistically significant differences.Conclusion: Ordinary admissions of Concours during study at university have better academic achievement than admissions of  University of Medical Sciences campuses.

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12

Title : Graves Disease: “Unusual Presentation”

Authors : Ahmed M. Badi, Hassan O.Abuzaid, Mohamed M.Abohmira, Akshay Athreya

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Hyperthyroidism is known to cause derangement in liver function. However, hyperthyroidism presenting solely with jaundice and no other symptoms is a rare occurrence.  We report a patient who presented to the hospital with severe itching and jaundice.  Liver function tests done initially showed a conjugated hyperbilirubinemia and elevation in liver enzymes. Imaging studies, auto immune workup for liver diseases, hepatitis serology were all negative. Thyroid function test revealed a picture of hyperthyroidism with strongly positive anti thyroid peroxidase antibodies.This case highlights the importance of considering thyroid diseases in cases of jaundice where no obvious causes can be identified. Treatment with anti-thyroid medications can provide significant relief.

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13

Title : Nasolabial Pedicle Flap for Reconstruction of a More Distant Defect : A Case Report

Authors : Otei O. O, Ozinko M , Ekpo R, Egiehiokhin Isiwere, Amah P

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This is the management of a 38-year-old female trader. She had a road traffic accident with open fracture of the frontal bone and was received by the accident and emergency doctors and resuscitated before the pastic and orthopeadic surgeons were invited to take over the management. The orthopeadic  team applied a neck collar and did investigations to rule out cervical spine injury. The plastic team later used a nasolabial flap  to cover the open frontal bone fracture. The patient was satisfied with the outcome of surgery.

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14

Title : Intestinal Extrusion by the Hole of Colostomy

Authors : Valdemir Jose Alegre Salles, Carolina Mardegan, Matheus Jose Maia Pereira, Paulo Giovanni Estevam, Raphael Bacco Gusmao da Rocha, Silvia Manprim Padovese, Karla Rachid Pereira, Marcella Camara Moura Silva

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Intestinal extrusion developed at the site of a stoma is a rare occurrence, associated with an elevated morbidity-mortality. The clinical symptoms frequently occur between the sixth and seventh postoperative days. The risk factors most commonly related to extrusion are: increased intra-abdominal pressure, cancer of the digestive tract, emergency surgery and stomas in the surgical incision. The authors report the case of male patients, with adenocarcinoma of the median rectus with acute obstructive abdomen, submitted to loop transversotomy with the objective of decompression. The patients presented intestinal extrusion through the peri-colostomic abdominal orifice. This occurred on the tenth post-operative day with a severe picture of Syndrome of Systemic Inflammatory Response and pneumonia. The association of some initiating factors, such as the emergency surgery, the neoplastic colorectal malignancy, the increase of intra-abdominal pressure and the technical error in tailoring the colostomy were determining factors for the development of this peri-colostomic complication.

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15

Title : Improved Oxidation of Graphite for Different Oxidation Time and for Different Concentration of Oxidizing Agent for Cellular Sensing

Authors : Shivangi Kosta, Prerna Bansal, Niroj Kumar Sahu

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In the present work, graphite has been oxidized by a modified oxidation method. Structural and optical properties of as prepared graphite oxide (GO) have been investigated for different oxidation time and for different concentrations of oxidizing agent (KMnO4). GO samples were prepared by varying the oxidation time (18hrs, 14hrs and 6hrs) and graphite: KMnO4 wt% ratios (1:3, 1:6 and 1:9). As-synthesized GO was characterized by XRD, FTIR, Zeta potential and UV-vis spectroscopic techniques. Our XRD results indicated oxidation of graphite through a shift in the position of [002] diffraction peak of graphite from 26º to 9º-10º for GO. We observed maximum d-spacing (0.932nm) for GO sample prepared for 6hrs with 1:6 wt% of graphite: KMnO4. GO sample prepared for 6hrs showed its excellent water dispersibility with zeta potential value of -43.35mV. Present study suggest that GO sample prepared for 6 hr oxidation time with 1:6 wt% of graphite:KMnO4 gives maximum exfoliation of graphite and is rich of all major oxygen functional groups. In comparison to the existing oxidation methods, our modified oxidation method is suitable for large scale preparation of highly oxygen functionalized GO in less oxidation time (6hrs). As-prepared GO was further used for detection of cancer cells through electrochemical approach.

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16

Title : Optimal Imperfect Production Inventory Model with Machine Breakdown and Stochastic Repair Time

Authors : Prasanta Kumar Ghosh, Jayanta Kumar Dey

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This study develops an imperfect production inventory model with random machine breakdown and stochastic repair time. The model assumes that the production system produces mixture of perfect and imperfect items from the beginning of the production and the system shifts from 'in-control state' to 'out-control state' at random time and also machine repair time is independent of the machine break-down rate. Some portions of the acceptable imperfect products are sale at reduction price and a disposal cost is incurred for environmental protection to dispose the rest portion. Demand of the perfect items is constant and due to imperfect screening, the return items (which are sale as perfect items but originally they are imperfect) are replaced by the new perfect items. Here two cases discussed in comprising with stochastic machine repair time and production down time. MATHEMETICA is used to derive an optimal profit for both the cases. Sensitivity analysis are shown to betterunderst and the model.

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17

Title : Influence of The Evaporation Rate Over Lithium Recovery From Brines

Authors : Valdez Silvana K., Flores Horacio R., Orce Agustina M., KwokLeung H.

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The brines of the South American Puna contain a great amount of valuables ions. Among them, lithium has the highest economic value; therefore, its grade and recovery are of interest in the purification steps of the brine. The first step of the process is brine concentration by solar evaporation. This process involves the precipitation of the ions which form saturated brines and a mass of crystals impregnated with mother liquor is obtained. The first salt that precipitates is sodium chloride (NaCl) because of their high initial concentration. When approximately 60% of the water is evaporated, a mixture of NaCl and KCl (sylvite) is obtained. This by product is used as raw material to obtain potassium chloride (KCl). The others ions present in the brine such as magnesium, calcium, and sulphate precipitate by adding a specific reagent (chemical precipitation). Sulphate and calcium precipitate as CaSO4, and magnesium as Mg(OH)2. The purified solution is sent to a final evaporation stage where the concentration of Li+ increases to about 6%.At each evaporation step, the ionic concentrations of the brine increases. In contrast its volume decreases. Also, the crystals obtained are soaked with a brine which is increasingly concentrated in lithium. Thus, the limiting factor to a greater degree of evaporation is the loss of Li+with the rich solution accompanying the mass of crystals. This liquor is the limiting factor in the evaporation level when a higher lithium grade is required. In this paper a progressive evaporation of brines from the North West of Argentina was performed and analyzed, focused in the lithium recovery from the concentrated brine. For a given brine, it is shown thatwhen the 64.3% of evaporation in volume is reached, the lithium concentration increases from 900 to 7,200 ppm. In this case, it is obtained a brine yield of 33.5 % in volume and a lithium recovery of the 28.1%.On the other hand, when the evaporation reaches 40% in volume, lithium recovery is 74%.

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18

Title : Channel Analysis in OFDM Systems

Authors : Satveer Singh, Md. Umar, Shalini

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Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) Technique has received a lot of interest in mobile communication research. For wideband mobile communication system, the radio channel is usually frequency selective and time variant. In OFDM system, the channel transfer function of radio channel appears in both frequency and time domains. Therefore, a estimation of channel is necessary for demodulation of OFDM signal. Channel estimation methods for OFDM system based on pilot aided. In this thesis we investigate and compare different pilot based channel estimation schemes for OFDM systems. The channel estimation can be performed by either inserting pilot tones into all subcarriers of OFDM symbols with a specific period or inserting pilot tones into each OFDM symbol. In this present study, major type of pilot arrangement such as 1.  Block type 2. Comb type. Both type of pilot arrangement have been focused employing least square error (LSE) and Minimum mean square error (MMSE) channel estimators. Block type pilot subcarrier is suitable for slow fading radio channels. Comb type pilot subcarrier is suitable for fast fading radio channels. Also com type pilot arrangement is sensitive to frequency selective when compare to block type pilot arrangement. Channel estimation algorithm based on comb type pilot is dividing into pilot signal estimation and channel interpolation. Symbol error rate performance of OFDM systems for both type pilot subcarriers are presented in this thesis.

 

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Title : Challenges and Role of Information Communication Technology Practices in Modern Distance Education System

Authors : Majid Zaman, Muheet Ahmed Butt

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Education birth of every human (Still a dream); Distance Education with the help of Information Communication Technology can make this dream come true. Information Communication Technology (ICT) is making it possible for individual to pursue education in the very room he/she lives in though distance mode. This is all because of the latest developments in the field of computer technology. It is redefining both the teacher and the learner. This paper first gives an overview of the state of art in the distance learning domain and its recent evolution. Within this frame we will discuss the educational use of information Communication Technology. Furthermore this paper examines and discusses theoretical aspects concerned with the educational use of ICT.

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