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Volume 2 Issue 6

S.No. Title & Authors Page No View
1

Title : Serum Lipid Profile And Random Blood Glucose of Male And Female Wistar Rats Following Administration of Leptin Hormone After A Dietary Regime

Authors : Rabiu A. M, Shugaba A.I, Egesie U. G, Odeh O. S.

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The Leptin hormone is a product of the obesity gene, a key regulator of feeding and energy expenditure.The World Health Organization (WHO) predicts 11.1 million deaths globally and 71% deaths in developing countries due to Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) by 2020 A.D. CAD has been associated with alterations in lipid metabolism, which include hyper-triglyceridemia and significantly reduced HDL-c. The increase in the concentration of cholesterol is attributable to LDL cholesterol because the high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is typically reduced. The study is aimed at determining the effect of leptin hormone on fasting serum lipid profile, atherogenic index (AI) and Random Blood glucose (RBG) inWistar rats following a diet regime and leptin injection.Fourty (40) Wistar rats (male n=20, female=20), age 9weeks and weighing between 77.2g-123.0g were randomly divided into two (2) groups of 5 rats per sub-group. All groups were maintained ad-libitum on experimental diets and water for a period of 10weeks. Group 1 (A1 and B1); the control received standard rat feed, group 2 (A2 and B2) received high fat diet (margarine, 90%) mixed with some standard rat feed (10%), group 3 (A3 and B3) received protein diet (soya beans, 100%) and group 4 (A4 and B4) received carbohydrate diet (cereal, 100%). The leptin hormone was given intra-peritoneal for a period of two (2) weeks.The resultshowed a significant difference (P<0.05) in the Tot-c, TG, VLDL-c, LDL-c and RBG in the pre-test and post-test periods, but there was no significant difference (P>0.05) for the calculated atherogenic index (AI). There was a significant difference (P<0.05) and sexual dimorphism for HDL-c and AI respectively and no significant difference (P>0.60) for Tot-c, TG, VLDL-c, LDL-c and RBG. It also showed a low LDL-c, low TG, low VLDL-c, low Tot-c and high HDL-c which resulted in a low AI in the male gender. The RBG was increased after the injection of the leptin hormone in all the groups. There was no sexual dimorphism in RBG. The result implies that the male gender is at a lower risk developing coronary artery disease (CAD).

01-05
2

Title : Which Therapeutic Treatment in Gastric Lymphoma

Authors : Graziano Giorgio Maria Paolo , Giovanni Castelli , Antonino Graziano

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Introduction localized gastric lymphoma can be a unique venue in the absence of peripheral lymph adenopathy and mediastinal disorders , and pathological elements in the blood or bone marrow. Represents 4 % of all gastric cancers , most frequently in Western countries in relation to the common intestinal disease that promotes stimulation of the lymphatic tissue The purpose of this study in relation to the observed clinical case is to expose current trends Materials and Methods woman of 70 with a dispetica painful symptoms for two years, heartburn nausea vomiting, melena 8 months ago with 12 kg weight loss , therapy with omeprazole without any alteration effectiveness EUS noted hyperechoic ultrasound interesting all the layers , that did not exceed the serosa . , there are also numerous formations lymph node increased volume of various sizes (2.5 cm max) Histological examination deposed for NH diffuse gastric lymphoma immunophenotype T, immunoreactivity of neoplastic cells for CD3 and CLA absence positivity for cytokeratin and CD79 , high proliferative index .Results In the therapeutic treatment of gastric lymphomas surgery plays an important role , since it allows a radical therapy in localized and a reduction of tumor burden in advanced malignancies facilitating subsequent therapies ( chemotherapy and radiotherapy ) % surgical resection offers a better survival distance when it is curative but palliative resections in the 5-year survival ranges from 25 % -35 % and is closely related to the stage of the disease.Discussion prognosis can therefore be determined in relation to the examination istiopatologico which provides feedback of parameters such as the size , depth of invasion tissue , nodal status cytopathological examination that has a diagnostic accuracy that oscillates between 35-80 % in depending on the method used Conclusion The therapeutic strategy with the purpose of healing gastric lymphoma is fundamentally tied II.della stage I tumor disease in the early stages surgery alone get an index of long-term survival ( > 10 years) 85 to 90% as reported by numerous AA in this stage of diseass, please download TEMPLATE HELP FILE from the website.

06-09
3

Title : I R Spectra of Lead Gallium Phosphate Glasses Doped With Molybdenum Ions

Authors : Dr.B. Lakshmana Rao, K. Jyothi Raju ,Dr.S.V.G.V.A.Prasad

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PbO-Ga2O3-P2O5 glasses containing small concentrations of MoO3 (ranging from 0 to 0.5mol%) were prepared. IR Studies of these glasses were carried out. The studies indicate that the molybdenum ions occupy octahedral positions in larger concentrations in M5.

10-12
4

Title : CAREER: A Society in Transition and The Prospects for Future Work by The Teaching

Authors : Alberto Costa

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This research aims at analysing the future teachers of a full degree in mathematics course, with reference to the attractions to teaching career when the internship supervised elementary school. Analyze the resulting lines of the Semistructured interviews with the students of the last year of the course, it is possible to conclude that all of them present a report showing difficulties to carry out the course of teacher training by several factors, including its own refusal to be a teacher. In this sense, might also note in comments from some students that the teachers who work in schools discourage students to devote himself to his career.

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5

Title : Salivary Glands and Its Myriad Forms of Cancers , Diagnosis And Therapy

Authors : Callie Mincy, Asha Eapen

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Salivary gland is a complex, compoundsecretory tissue seen in the oral cavity, which produces saliva and maintains oral homeostasis.Salivary gland diseases can range from swelling of the gland to malignancies. In order to understand the localization and the diagnosis of the salivary gland diseases, it is important to understand the development, structure and function of the gland. This review article summaries the biology, diseases and the diagnostic tool available to investigate and evaluate the disease. 

15-20
6

Title : Case Report : A Rare Case of Central Hyperthyroidism During Pregnancy - Diagnostic And Therapeutic Challenge

Authors : Dr. Hassan Abuzaid, Dr. Khalid Farouki, Dr. Akshay Athreya, Dr. Parag Mahajan

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Central hyperthyroidism is a rare cause of hyperthyroidism. It causes autonomous TSH secretion and is refractory to the negative feedback of thyroid hormones.

Most patients with TSH secreting adenomas are diagnosed around the fifth decade of life. Here we present a case of a TSH secreting adenoma detected during the second trimester of pregnancy. We also present the challenges faced in diagnosing and treating the case because the patient refused neurosurgery till she delivered the baby.

She was managed medically and successfully delivered a healthy baby via normal vaginal delivery. She was referred to neurosurgery after delivery. 

21-23
7

Title : On Traumatic Lesions of The Pancreas

Authors : Giorgio Maria Paolo Graziano, Federica Castelli, Prof Antonino Graziano

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Traumatic injuries affecting the pancreas have a statistic or percentage of between 2 and 12% of all injuries in the abdomen (1) in 2/3 of the cases caused by road accidents and a third of cases from wounds, the purpose of this work is to expose the experience gained in a retrospective review of the cases treated pancreatic traumatic pathology asking the guidance and direction to the disease treatment

 Materials and methods :In the first group were observed 12 patients cu n n n 4 8 blunt trauma and penetrating trauma, injuries associated n 2 cases related to the spleen, liver n 4, n 1 n 1 duodenum transverse colon. In the second group we were n is observed 6 cases of which was present in 4 cases n: n 1 a laceration of the body, n 1 case laceration of the tail, n 2 cases a complete resection of the pancreatic duct observed In cases where were present the traumas blunt: treatment in No 8 cases in which there was a bruise or tear without parenchymal involvement product was done by a simple drainage with a residual n 2 pancreatic fistulas treated with NPT and healed in n n 1 respectively in 30 days , and in 'more in 90 days. In the remaining 10 patients in n n 6 cases in which there was a laceration body and tail with complete detachment of the pancreatic duct associated with the irreparable injury of the spleen we proceeded to a distal pancreatic resection with splenectomy. Results :in the choice of treatment was carried out with a distinction and evaluation of the following criteria: A) evaluation of bruising or tearing, B) the absence or complete or incomplete rupture of the pancreatic duct. c) destruction of the pancreatic head and involvement of the common bile duct. the stage I and II (65-75%). The initial symptoms were absent due to the failure to irritation of the posterior peritoneum, whereby the abutment of the blunt trauma pancreatic at early stage was observe initially following the repairs of the associated lesions. (Colon.milza, bleeding. Instrumental examinations which the CT, MRI, have reduced diagnostic time and rendered obsolete the echo abdomen and video laparoscopy, surveys that collect indirect signs. the lesions of the duct ductal with loss of enzymes resulted in the castings, like cysts and relapsing pancreatitis  . lL surgical treatment required further evaluation of parameters such as the site of the lesion, the age that has guided the conservative treatment in young people.  Discussion. The  instrumental exams (CT and MRI) have reduced the diagnostic and obsoleted times the echo abdomen and video laparoscopy, surveys that collect indirect signs (loss of the contour of the psoas muscle, bleeding retroperitoneal ) of the lesion. It is still useful in cases of perforation of the duodenum associated with the X-ray with gastrografin. . The decision on the type of treatment remains bound to the experience, the technical skills, to 'clinical analysis of the case of the' surge capacity of choice related by the possibilities of success when the traumatic event is evolving. The success of the surgical treatment had need of complementary therapy. The NPT with the suspension of food transit, pharmacological reduction of pancreatic secretion, the contribution of parenteral nutrition with a low-fat diet has provided advantages in terms of reduction of complications.  during surgery mortality ranges from a statistical check by 12.3% to 29.6% depending on whether it's a simple drainage or DPC. In the cases it considered the values were slightly higher from 16.2% to 32.5% Conclusions The incidence of pancreatic trauma is steadily increasing due to the presence of a massive motorization that involves an increase in the number of road accidents. the use of digitized diagnostic (CT and MRI) has reduced the time and diagnostic delays especially in blunt trauma, with the identification of the major pancreatic duct lesions. It remains to define the problem of identification of minute lesions due to pancreatic fistulas. The success of surgical treatment remains anchored to trauma treatment in the developmental phase, associated with the experience and technical and analytical ability to choose what and when to implement the most appropriate therapeutic treatment.

24-28
8

Title : MTHFR and MTR Polymorphisms and Breast Cancer in Brazilian Women

Authors : Lisiane Lopes da Conceicao, Milene Cristine Pessoa, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff, Renata Nascimento de Freitas, Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio

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Breast cancer (BC) is the second most common cancer, and mortality rates remain high among Brazilian women. However, the role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in one-carbon metabolism genes in breast cancer in Brazilian women is less clear. We aimed examine the association between the SNPs, in two genes in one-carbon metabolism alone and in cumulation, and the risk of breast cancer in an Brazilian population based case-control study of 257 breast cancer cases and 177 controls. Our hypothesis was woman who carries more risk genotypes has a higher susceptibility for developing breast cancer. Genotyping for MTHFR C677T and MTR A2756G polymorphisms were performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR-RFLP) method. Our results in population studied indicated that 677 C>T and 2756 A>G substitution does not appear to influence the risk of breast cancer. The cumulative effect was not observed with the OR being gradually elevated with increasing number of risk genotypes. However, larger studies are needed to further examine this interactions in this pathway and breast cancer risk in Brazilian women, as well in women of others nationalities.

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9

Title : Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis In A Patient With Ankylosing Spondylitis And Ulcerative Colitis Successfully Treated With Adalimumab - A Five Year Follow-Up - Case Report

Authors : Hanna Przepiera-Bedzak, Piotr Milkiewicz, Andrzej Bialek, Marek Brzosko

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We report a five year follow-up of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) in a 29-year-old man with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and ulcerative colitis (UC). According to our knowledge, this is the first case report of such coexistence.

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and the magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) confirmed PSC. The sphincterotomy was performed and stent to the common bile duct was inserted. Because of the high activity of AS, treatment with adalimumab was started.

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10

Title : Global Behavior of A System of Two Nonlinear Difference Equation

Authors : Guozhuan Hu

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In this paper, we study the global behavior for a system of two nonlinear difference equations

We find that  the unique positive equilibrium is global asymptotically stable under certain conditions. Finally, some illustrative examples are given to show the effective of results obtained.

36-38
11

Title : Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Cow Urine Betel Vine Extract in Rats

Authors : N.B. Sridharamurthy, M.N. Manasa ,B.A. Sowmya

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Piper betel (Betel vine) is a Vedic plant, which is using as a remedy for various diseases. In Ayurveda betel leaf extract was frequently used as an adjuvant and mixed with different medicines possibly for better effects beside its independent use as medicine. In addition to this, the aphrodisiac effect of it has been indicated in ancient texts. It is also believed to provide strength to the heart and regulate blood flow to the heart. Its utility as anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial is emphasized in several ancient books. According to Ayurveda it also helps in expelling the mucus from the respiratory tract. In Unani system of medicine it is described to improve taste and apetite, tonic to brain, heart and liver, lessens thirst, clears throat and purifies blood. Cow urine is believed to have therapeutic value and used in many drug formulations. Essentially, cow urine is used as disinfectant and for purification. With an approximate shelf life of around 5 years, this has proved to be the most effective natural antiseptic and disinfectant, when compared to the synthetic chemicals which are currently available to the consumers. Thus, it strengthens the fact that cow’s urine is not a toxic effluent as 95% of its content being water, 2.5% urea and the remaining 2.5%, a mixture of minerals, salts, hormones and enzymes. In the rural villages in India, cow’s urine is being used since a very long time as an effective antiseptic for wounds, skin diseases, bathing, etc.

Fresh leaves of the Piper betel (Betel vine) were collected from the nearest plantation and leaves were authenticated, shade dried and powdered to get moderate coarse powder. The dry powder was then extracted with cow urine at 40-450C by maceration process for 72 hrs. Later the cow urine extract was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated to a semi solid mass by using vacuum distillation apparatus. The extract so obtained was used for the phytochemical and pharmacological investigations. In the present study, oral administration of the Cow urine Betel vine extract at the doses of 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg significantly inhibits paw edema and the results were compared with Standard Diclofenac (5mg/kg) treated group.

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12

Title : Vitamins, Carotenoids and its association with Beneficial Effect in Preventing Breast Cancer

Authors : Catarina Maria Nogueira De Oliveira Sediyama, Manoela Maciel dos Santos Dias, Luis Fernando de Sousa Moraes, Camilla Atsumi Zanuncio Sediyama-Bhering, Silvia Eloisa Priore, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini, Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio

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Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in women. Vitamins have been highlighted in numerous studies for its antioxidant properties and its influence on cell physiology, which suggest its potential on tumor prevention. This review aims to verify the effects of intake and/or supplementation of vitamins A, C, D and E in breast cancer prevention. The search was performed in PubMed. For this review, a search was performed using several pre-defined keyword combinations and their equivalents: "Vitamin A", "Carotenoids", "Ascorbic Acid", "Vitamin E", "Tocopherols", "Vitamin D". It was included Clinical Trials, Randomized Controlled Trials, Reviews and Systematic Reviews between January 2002 and December 2014, with women older than 18 years. Initially, 85 studies were identified. However, only twenty five were eligible. It has been demonstrated that vitamin D can reduce the risk of breast cancer in women, as well as vitamin E. Carotenoids and vitamin C might provide beneficial effects in subgroups like premenopausal and postmenopausal women respectively, being influenced by the menopausal status.

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13

Title : Augmented Adipofascial Flap for Soft Tissue Cover of Open Tibial Fractures : A Case Report

Authors : Otei O O, Ozinko M, Ekpo R, Anthony Udosen , Amah P 0

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This is the management of a 30-year-old male student, a passenger on a  motor cycle who had an open tibial fracture. He was resuscitated by the Accident and Emergency doctors before the Orthopeadic and Plastic surgery units were invited to take over the management. The fracture was reduced and maintained with external fixators by the Orthopeadic surgeons and an augmented fascial flap and a split thickness skin graft were used to cover the fracture by the plastic surgical team. The wounds healed  in three weeks and the  fracture united in four months.

51-53
14

Title : Does Law Impose a Certain Code of Morality? Examples from Medical and Nursing Practice and Health Policy

Authors : Venetia Sofia E. Velonaki, Martha E. Velonaki, Georgios I. Kampouroglou

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The fact that dictates of law and those of morality will often coincide is widely acceptable. However, the question whether law exists or should exist to impose one particular code of morality or not may receive many different responses. Following these two concepts over different cases and scenes in the health care sector leads to the conclusion that this question could not receive a curt answer. Law should be parallel to human morality to an extent. But, morality has a subjective dimension. The common content of morality within a community is the basis for the community’s legal framework. Even when law does not impose morality directly, it may refer to morality indirectly, referring for example to morals or to morality, to good faith, to bona fide and the like. Arguments and examples in this article establish the opinion that law is asked to apply morality to an extent, but this should not be used to supplant communal norms, cultural or religious beliefs, mainly when these sides of morality are not contrary to the universally common morality.

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15

Title : The Magnetization of fcc Con (100) and (111) surfaces with GGA and GGA+U

Authors : Yousif Shoaib Mohammed

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The Spin polarization of fcc Con (100) and (111) surfaces is investigated with a first-principle calculation of the Density Functional Theory (DFT) ferromagnetic (FM) face-centered cubic (fcc) of Cobalt Con (100) and (111) surfaces for n = 3, 5 and 7 layers. The relaxed ion and and ion + volume, and non-relaxed electronic structures of the both surfaces are determined with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and generalized gradient approximation + Hubbard (GGA+U). The observed trends can be explained as in earlier studies in terms of the hybridization between d states of Co substrate, also some interesting specific behavior of the magnetization in the fcc Co (100) and (111) surfaces with different layers has been observed.

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16

Title : Dental Status and Treatment Needs of Special Needs Children in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia

Authors : S. Mohd Mokhtar, L. Abd Jalil, N. Muhd Noor, B. C. Tan, Z. Shamdol, H. Ali Hanafiah

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The aim of the study is to determine the dental status and treatment needs of special needs children in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia and to investigate the association of caries prevalence and oral health status with sociodemographic variables. Methodology: This is a cross sectional study involving 574 special needs children aged 17 and below who attended Community-based Rehabilitation centres and special classes in the government schools. They were examined for dental caries (dmft/DMFT index of World Health Organization) and oral hygiene (Simplified Oral Hygiene Index, OHI-S of Green Vermillion). Statistical analyses include frequency, percentages, mean and standard deviation for descriptive statistics, whilst one-way ANOVA, simple and multiple logistic regressions were used for association analysis. Result: Majority of the children was mentally handicapped. Over 90% were from parents of middle and lower level educational background. The caries prevalence was 54.9% with mean dmft/DMFT of 1.03±2.13/1.22±2.23. There was no significant association between caries prevalence with parents’ education and monthly household income. The only sociodemographic factor that showed significant association with caries prevalence (p<0.001) was age. The mean of OHI-S was 1.13±1.03. The oral hygiene status was inversely associated with age, parents education and monthly household income. 52.8% of the children required dental treatment. In the very young, aged 2 to 6 years, 85.2% of decayed teeth (d+D) were untreated and required some form of treatment (restoration or/and extraction). Conclusion: High caries prevalence and dental treatment needs were found among the special needs children in Negeri Sembilan. This study highlights the necessity to prioritize the service delivery to the younger age group. The findings will be useful as baseline data to enable future planning of oral health care delivery for children with disabilities. 

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17

Title : Influence of TRPV1 Modulators Capsaicin and Capsazepine on Osteoclastogenesis in vitro

Authors : Mohan Gowda C.M , Sreepriya M

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The influence of TRPV1 modulators capsaicin and capsazepine to regulate the growth and proliferation of osteoclasts and thereby control osteoclastogenesis was studied on murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 induced to take up osteoclastic lineage by the addition of RANK (receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B) ligand. The differentiation of cells of macrophage lineage into osteoclastic lineage upon the addition of RANK ligand was ascertained by TRAP (Tartarate Resistant Acid Phosphatase) staining and subsequent light microscopy analysis. Crystal violet test, Sulphorhodamine B assay, NBT reduction test and Neutral red dye uptake test were taken as end point indicators to assess osteoclast growth and proliferation. It was observed that capsaicin at a concentration of 200µg/ml exhibited a statistically significant increase whereas capsazepine at a concentration of 94.2µg/ml (IC50 concentration of capsazepine) exhibited a statistically significant inhibition of osteoclast growth and proliferation. Results of the study indicate that both the compounds influence osteoclastogenesis with capsaicin showing a potentiating and capsazepine showing inhibitory effect thereby implicating their ability to influence bone resorption and hence bone remodeling. The compounds could be of therapeutic importance in musculoskeletal diseases and other inflammatory diseases of the bone to regulate the disruption in bone remodeling equilibrium.

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18

Title : SDFW Analysis of Mutual Coupling on Microstrip Antenna Array Conformal to Curved

Authors : Deepika, Mr. Kapil Mangla, Mr. Umer

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In this paper, Analysis of mutual coupling on microstrip patch antenna array conformal to curved surface is studied for both E-plane and H-plane. Far field radiation patterns and current distributions on individual patches have been obtained and plotted. The effect of E-plane and H-plane separation between radiating elements on mutual coupling coefficients has been analyzed.The approach makes use of the popular and rigorously used spectral domain full wave analysis method in conjunction with method of moment as numerical analysis tool. The electric field due to rectangular patch is obtained by solving integral equation which involves Green’s function in spectral domain. The integral equations thus formed are converted into a system of linear equations by the use of method of moment. In the method of moment, the unknown patch current is expressed into a set of linear combination of entire domain basis function weighted by unknown coefficients which are determined after solving linear system of equation. After determining current distribution on the patch antenna, the input impedance and radiation characteristics are obtained. To incorporate the effect of mutual coupling, the scattering matrix is used to describe the multiport network and mutual coupling coefficients are then obtained from scattering parameters. Simulations are done using MATLAB 2007b. Mutual coupling coefficients for E-plane and H-plane coupling are calculated by varying elemental spacing in both E and H-plane.

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